The main political influences
on the development of the
Labour Party’s attitudes towards
The Labour Party was born out of domestic political discontent, and
its policies – to a greater extent forged in opposition up until the 1940s
– tended to reflect this. Because of these two factors, Labour’s foreign
policy reflected the party itself, the beliefs and standpoints of the
various groups that came together to create it, and the dynamics
between them, rather than necessarily the external world and
When and why do political parties change?
This chapter sets out an analytical framework to compare the Scottish and Welsh
Conservative parties. They are two branches of a statewide political party that confront the challenges of dealing with multi-level politics. This chapter considers what
we know about change in political parties and places a particular emphasis on the
factors that affect parties at the sub-state level. Taking Harmel and Janda’s (1994)
model of national party change as its starting point, it outlines a framework to analyse sub-state party
The key to understanding the emergence of the independent Irish state lies in the history of Home Rule. This book offers the most comprehensive examination to date of the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) at Westminster during the years of John Redmond’s chairmanship, 1900-18. The IPP were both the most powerful ‘third party’ and the most significant parliamentary challengers of the Union in the history of the United Kingdom up until the emergence of the Scottish National Party. The book covers the party’s re-unification in 1900 after a decade of division; the dashed hopes of Home Rule in 1912-14; the First World War; 1916 Rising; and concludes with the IPP’s electoral annihilation at the hands of Sinn Féin in the 1918 general election. Fresh insights into the nature of power and leadership of the party are provided, showing how an inner circle came to dominate the party and how their evolving friendships and alliances impacted upon the efficacy and policy direction of the party. Original research into the collective behaviour of the party both in House of Commons division votes and at question time is provided. This puts the Irish party’s behaviour into a British context by comparing their work and activity to the other parties then in the House of Commons. This book will be of interest to readers of both Irish and British history. It contributes to the history of Ireland’s revolutionary decade as well as providing insights that will instruct those interested in modern Irish party politics.
This is the first book in a two-volume set that traces the evolution of the Labour Party's foreign policy throughout the twentieth century and into the early years of the new millennium. It is a comprehensive study of the political ideology and history of the Labour Party's world-view and foreign policy. The set argues that the development of Labour's foreign policy perspective should be seen not as the development of a socialist foreign policy, but as an application of the ideas of liberal internationalism. The first volume outlines and assesses the early development and evolution of Labour's world-view. It then follows the course of the Labour Party's foreign policy during a tumultuous period on the international stage, including the First World War, the Russian Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, the build-up to and violent reality of the Second World War, and the start of the Cold War. The book provides an analysis of Labour's foreign policy during this period, in which Labour experienced power for the first time.
This book reveals the Conservative Party's relationship with the extreme right between 1945 and 1975. It shows how the Party, realising that its well-documented pre-Second World War connections with the extreme right were now embarrassing, used its bureaucracy to implement a policy of investigating extreme-right groups and taking action to minimise their chances of success. The book focuses on the Conservative Party's investigation of right-wing groups, and shows how its perception of their nature determined the party bureaucracy's response. It draws on extensive information from the Conservative Party Archive, supported by other sources, including interviews with leading players in the events of the 1970s. The book draws a comparison between the Conservative Party machine's negative attitude towards the extreme right and its support for progressive groups. It concludes that the Conservative Party acted as a persistent block to the external extreme right in a number of ways, and that the Party bureaucracy persistently denied the extreme right party assistance, access to funds and representation within party organisations. The book reaches a climax with the formulation of a ‘plan’ threatening its own candidate if he failed to remove the extreme right from the Conservative Monday Club.
This collection of essays explores a largely neglected aspect of the history of Anglo-Irish relations: British Labour Party policy on Ireland during the twentieth century. Much of the literature on the relationship between ‘these islands’ concentrates on the present or the recent past, but by viewing an important dimension of that relationship through a wider lens, this work makes a significant contribution to the field British-Irish studies, one that will inform future research and debate. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Labour Party was broadly supportive of Irish self-government, as reflected in its espousal of a home rule settlement. However, from the end of the First World War, Labour anticipated a place in government. As a modern, maturing party that was intent on proving its ability to govern, it developed a more calculated and measured set of responses to Irish nationalism and to the ‘Irish question’. With contributions from a range of distinguished Irish and British scholars, this collection provides the first full treatment of the historical relationship between the Labour Party and Ireland in the last century, from Keir Hardie to Tony Blair. By examining the party’s responses to crises and debates around home rule, partition, Irish neutrality during WWII, Ireland’s departure from the Commonwealth, and the Northern ‘Troubles’, it offers an original perspective on longer-term dispositions in Labour mentalities towards Ireland.
The European policies of the Labour Party,
the PS, and the SPD
This chapter provides background information on the Labour Party, the Parti
Socialiste (PS), and the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschland’s (SPD) European
policies and recent EU strategies. Recent scholarship has shown more interest in
why Eurosceptic parties oppose the European Union (EU), while mainstream parties’ EU positions have received less scholarly attention. Perhaps this is not surprising, given that social democrats, alongside liberals and conservatives, tend to
The Labour Party, pacifism
and the Spanish Civil War
On 18 September 1931 Japan invaded China on the pretext that a
Japanese railway in Manchuria had suffered from Chinese sabotage.
Japanese troops over-ran Manchuria and set up a puppet state. China
appealed to the League of Nations for assistance under Article 11 of
the Covenant, and the League responded by asking Japan to evacuate
the territory it had occupied. Japan, which had signed up to the
Covenant of the League of Nations and the Briand-Kellogg Pact
This book considers the most electorally successful political party in Spain, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) which was in government for two of the three decades since it won office under Felipe González in 1982. Providing rich historical background, the book's main focus is on the period since General Franco's death in 1975 and charts Spain's modernisation under the PSOE, with a particular focus on the role played by European integration in this process. Covering events including the 2011 general election, the book is one of the most up-to-date works available in English and will be of great interest to academics, undergraduate and postgraduate students in the field of Spanish and European studies.
This is a definitive history of the Northern Ireland Labour Party (NILP), a unique political force that drew its support from Protestants and Catholics and became electorally viable despite deep-seated ethnic, religious and national divisions. Formed in 1924 and disbanded in 1987, it succeeded in returning several of its members to the locally based Northern Ireland parliament in 1925–29 and 1958–72, and polled some 100,000 votes in the 1964 and 1970 British general elections. Despite its political successes, the NILP's significance has been downplayed by historians, partly because of the lack of empirical evidence and partly to reinforce the simplistic view of Northern Ireland as the site of the most protracted sectarian conflict in modern Europe. The book brings together archival sources and the oral testimonies of the NILP's former members to explain the enigma of an extraordinary political party operating in extraordinary circumstances. It situates the NILP's successes and failures in a broad historical framework, providing the reader with a balanced account of twentieth-century Northern Irish political history.