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The Algerian war and the ‘emancipation’ of Muslim women, 1954–62
Author: Neil Macmaster

In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.

Social and cultural modernity beyond the nation-state
Author: Shivdeep Grewal

German philosopher Jürgen Habermas has written extensively on the European Union. This is the only in-depth account of his project. Published now in a second edition to coincide with the celebration of his ninetieth birthday, a new preface considers Habermas’s writings on the eurozone and refugee crises, populism and Brexit, and the presidency of Emmanuel Macron.

Placing an emphasis on the conception of the EU that informs Habermas’s political prescriptions, the book is divided into two main parts. The first considers the unfolding of 'social modernity' at the level of the EU. Among the subjects covered are Habermas's concept of juridification, the latter's affinities with integration theories such as neofunctionalism, and the application of Habermas's democratic theory to the EU. The second part addresses 'cultural modernity' in Europe – 'Europessimism' is argued to be a subset of the broader cultural pessimism that assailed the project of modernity in the late twentieth century, and with renewed intensity in the years since 9/11.

Interdisciplinary in approach, this book engages with European/EU studies, critical theory, political theory, international relations, intellectual history, comparative literature, and philosophy. Concise and clearly written, it will be of interest to students, scholars and professionals with an interest in these disciplines, as well as to a broader readership concerned with the future of Europe

Place, space and discourse
Editors: Christine Agius and Dean Keep

Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.

From Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry to British Romantic art
Author: Hélène Ibata

The challenge of the sublime argues that the unprecedented visual inventiveness of the Romantic period in Britain could be seen as a response to theories of the sublime, more specifically to Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). While it is widely accepted that the Enquiry contributed to shaping the thematics of terror that became fashionable in British art from the 1770s, this book contends that its influence was of even greater consequence, paradoxically because of Burke’s conviction that the visual arts were incapable of conveying the sublime. His argument that the sublime was beyond the reach of painting, because of the mimetic nature of visual representation, directly or indirectly incited visual artists to explore not just new themes, but also new compositional strategies and even new or undeveloped pictorial and graphic media, such as the panorama, book illustrations and capricci. More significantly, it began to call into question mimetic representational models, causing artists to reflect about the presentation of the unpresentable and the inadequacy of their endeavours, and thus drawing attention to the process of artistic production itself, rather than the finished artwork. By revisiting the links between eighteenth-century aesthetic theory and visual practices, The challenge of the sublime establishes new interdisciplinary connections which address researchers in the fields of art history, cultural studies and aesthetics.

Věra Stojarová

The author examines variables which might potentially influence the success of far right political parties: 1) Political (political discontent, convergence/polarization/fragmentation of the party system, PR electoral system, the emergence of Green parties and New Left movements, referendums which cut across old party dividing lines, the creation of a new state, perceived inernal/external threats, the political expression of nationalism, regime change, political culture, elite behavior); 2) Social (dissolution of established identities, middle class discontent, existence of social tension or conflict); 3) Economic (post-industrial economy, rising unemployment, welfare cuts, economic crisis, war, foreign domination, economic transition); 4) Ethno-cultural (fragmentation of the culture, demography and multiculturalization, the impact of globalization, reaction to an influx of racially and culturally distinct populations, popular xenophobia and racism, religion vs. secularisation, one's own ethnicity living outside the borders of the mother state); 5) The international context (state humiliation, desire for higher status).

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Věra Stojarová

The author examines variables which might potentially influence the success of far right political parties: 1) Political (political discontent, convergence/polarization/fragmentation of the party system, PR electoral system, the emergence of Green parties and New Left movements, referendums which cut across old party dividing lines, the creation of a new state, perceived inernal/external threats, the political expression of nationalism, regime change, political culture, elite behavior); 2) Social (dissolution of established identities, middle class discontent, existence of social tension or conflict); 3) Economic (post-industrial economy, rising unemployment, welfare cuts, economic crisis, war, foreign domination, economic transition); 4) Ethno-cultural (fragmentation of the culture, demography and multiculturalization, the impact of globalization, reaction to an influx of racially and culturally distinct populations, popular xenophobia and racism, religion vs. secularisation, one's own ethnicity living outside the borders of the mother state); 5) The international context (state humiliation, desire for higher status).

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Open Access (free)
The Enlightenment and modernity
S.J. Barnett

Enlightenment is a broad phenomenon, and it is now increasingly recognised that it was as diverse in its protagonists as it was geographically and chronologically disparate. This chapter reveals that, outside of traditional Enlightenment studies, there also exists strong support for the Enlightenment-modernity thesis in the form of the so-called post modernity theory. Modernity gave way to post modernity in the early 1970s. Postmodernists have repeatedly asserted that the secularising, reason-orientated Enlightenment is the one and only origin of modernity. It is true that postmodernism has been responsible for a renewed interest in the philosophy of history, mostly because it asserts that the past is irretrievably gone, and that self-interested attempts at reconstructing it are, by their nature, consequently doomed to failure. This study represents an attempt to review some of the causes and contexts of religious change in Enlightenment Italy, France and England.

in The Enlightenment and religion
Joe Cleary

some post-​Devotional Revolution Catholicism now emerging might also differ significantly to these earlier manifestations. Or are the kinds of changes now under way involved best captured by the term ‘secularisation’, and, if so, does this mean that Ireland is now belatedly undergoing processes largely in step with those that have taken place earlier in the UK and Western Europe? Or is it more accurate to say that Ireland is not so much being ‘secularised’ as undergoing a longer-​term transition from Christianity towards some new, more indeterminate but socially

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Stephen K. Batalden

In the highly politicised world of nineteenth-century Russian religious culture, translation of the Bible became a source of major conflict. Who had the right to translate the Bible? What base texts were authoritative? What was to be the language of the modern Russian Bible? This chapter focuses on the controversy dividing Russian prelates in the 1850s over the renewal of Russian biblical translation efforts following the thirty-year hiatus imposed by Emperor Nicholas I. The chapter explores four touchstone moments when the politics of empire and nation came to be sharply represented in conflicts over biblical translation: (1) the conflict in the early nineteenth century over the imperially sanctioned Russian Bible Society; (2) the internal debate of the 1850s in the Holy Synod over the reopening of modern Russian biblical translation; (3) the conflicts linking the Jewish question with biblical translation in the last half of the nineteenth century; and, briefly, (4) the contemporary issue of biblical translation in the context of the current international conflict over Ukraine. The chapter argues that these fault lines reflected deep divisions over how best to accommodate ethnic diversity and incipient secularisation within Russian religious culture from the nineteenth century to the present day.

in Chosen peoples
Pamela Sue Anderson

world of the Enlightenment’.1 Second, this critique undermines Christianity’s relation to a ‘politics of rights’ that, according to Hauerwas, distorted twentieth-century theology with its focus on universal claims for individuals. Third, Hauerwas’s Christianity assumes that faith-community is destroyed by the autonomy of individuals that he finds in the secularising of liberal theology. But, in his terms, the ‘events’ of ‘Babel’ and ‘Pentecost’ reveal a theological remedy for the sin of autonomous individualism: the ‘bodily’ nature of ‘a community of communication’ is

in Religion and rights