Social contexts in L’Inchiesta and Risen
Fernando Gabriel Pagnoni Berns and Emiliano Aguilar

of 9/11 felt like a violation, pointing to the fact that the USA was no longer invulnerable. It was a divine apocalypse brought to our reality. Karen Armstrong argued that 9/11 revealed a reality that had always existed but which was invisible. The atrocities showed how extremely unstable our position is in a world where most people feel underprivileged and defenceless ( 2003 : 107), in brief, living in a world dominated by injustice. The September 11 terrorist attack ‘deeply upset the religious faith of the Americans who believed in an omnipotent, just, and

in The Bible onscreen in the new millennium
Michael Mulqueen

Introduction The attack of September 11 2001 demonstrated, to unprecedented effect, the vulnerability of states to transnational terrorist networks. 1 Within hours of the attack, the Irish government ordered the State’s security and intelligence agencies to review the level of threat against Ireland ( Irish Times 2001a). They began work that afternoon (Author’s interviews

in Re-evaluating Irish national security policy
A ‘new’ and ‘evolving’ threat to the European Union
Christopher Baker-Beall

posed by terrorism in the post-September 11 era. Second, to demonstrate the role that each strand of the discourse plays in the discursive construction of the radically threatening figure of the ‘terrorist’ other. Third, to highlight the way in which the identity of the EU is constituted in opposition to and through differentiation from the terrorist ‘other’. Fourth, to show how, when invoked together, the various strands of the discourse takes on a performative quality in that they help to shape the type of policy that the EU conducts in response to the perceived

in The European Union’s fight against terrorism
Abstract only
Modernization without Colonization
François Burgat

. To this end, Nu’man and Zubeiry thought to create a more effective institutional framework than the abstruse reference to the Republic. They chose to found the first Hezbollah in the region’s history. And so it came to pass that in Yemen it was a “Party of God” that shored up the revolution that brought the political reign of religious doctrine to a lasting end. “Civil Society in Arms” During my time there before September 11, 2001, Yemen was also an excellent perch from which to witness the many consequences of

in Understanding Political Islam
Open Access (free)
A bounded security role in a greater Europe
Simon Serfaty

227 The EU and Eurasia Politically, the EU lacks a common foreign and security policy, and none is likely to emerge any time soon. Economically, the Union’s attention is elsewhere as it attends to the consequences of its enlargement and other dimensions of a heavy parochial agenda. As a result, outside Russia and Turkey, whatever influence is exerted by the EU in Eurasia results mainly from the interests of individual member-states rather than from the presence of the institutions to which they belong. After the events of September 11 2001, however, and in the

in Limiting institutions?
Kerry Longhurst

more far-reaching reforms emerged, with many of Germany’s allies and partners eager to see a greater commitment to modernise the Bundeswehr as well as increase defence spending. Stimulus for change was then provided by the events of September 11 2001 and the subsequent US-led war on terrorism, which served to finally explode the longstanding assumption that national and alliance territorial defence was central to the Bundeswehr’s mission and rationale. Certainly, the Bundeswehr at the start of the twenty-first century is a very different entity from that of the Cold War

in Germany and the use of force
Open Access (free)
Jenny Edkins

invulnerability that the events of September 11 seemed to represent, to some at least. No evidence of the traumatic shock, or the recognition that others suffer like this daily. No recognition of the direction in US foreign policy that a particular narrative legitimated. No sense remaining that it could have been otherwise. We/they have rebuilt, but higher. We have no memorial, no space to remember, nothing but a major new tourist attraction and the new infrastructure to make money from it: shops, hotels, products, apps. No sacred space, no space for the sacred, for the story

in Change and the politics of certainty
Eşref Aksu

East Timor also pointed to the changing collective expectations of the UN. Do we detect a trend here? It would as yet be foolhardy to draw categorical conclusions in the affirmative – especially given the nebulous scenery created by September 11. What can be said is that high expectations placed in the UN have thus far survived the enormous difficulties in its path, 14 which is not to say that the UN

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Open Access (free)
The past as prologue
Kerry Longhurst

–political out-of-area debate, the transformation of the Bundeswehr and Germany’s engagement in a full combat mission in Kosovo; chapter 4 continues the chronological sequence and brings analysis up to date to include a discussion of German perspectives on the events of September 11 2001, Afghanistan and the Iraq War of 2003. By thus tracking the post-Cold War transformation of the Bundeswehr’s role in the 1990s it is possible to assess both the extent and the nature of change in German strategic culture and also how strategic culture affects policy behaviour. Further evidence

in Germany and the use of force
Abstract only
The failure of neutrality?
Christine Agius

and values that captured a different view of the world. Note 1 In 2004, Fukuyama argued that post-September 11, states are needed more than ever: ‘11 September also underscored a key feature of the post-Cold War world. While the great problems of world order in the 20th century were caused by too

in The social construction of Swedish neutrality