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Bankruptcy, insolvency, and medical charity
Alannah Tomkins

Insolvency, pp. 88–93. 70 Medical misadventure 4 D.M. Evans, Facts, Failures, and Frauds: Revelations Financial Mercantile Criminal (Groombridge: London, 1859); T.L. Alborn, ‘The moral of the failed bank: professional plots in the Victorian money market’, Victorian Studies 38:2 (1995), pp. 199–226. 5 S. Collini, ‘The idea of “character” in Victorian political thought’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 35 (1985), pp. 29–50, on p. 40. 6 H. Goodman, ‘“Madness and Masculinity”: Male Patients in London Asylums and Victorian Culture’, in T. Knowles and S

in Medical misadventure in an age of professionalisation, 1780–1890
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An introduction
Katie Barclay

, 2009). 52 S. Collini, ‘The idea of “character” in Victorian political thought’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 35 (1985), 29–50. 53 T. Ahnert and S. Manning, ‘Introduction’, in T. Ahnert and S. Manning (eds), Character, Self, and Sociability in the Scottish Enlightenment (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), pp. 1–3. 54 Higgins, A Nation of Politicians, p. 37; R. Munter, The History of the Irish Newspaper 1685–1760 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967); B. Inglis, The Freedom of the Press in Ireland, 1784–1841 (Westport: Greenwood

in Men on trial
Macaulay, Carlyle, and the ‘shoreless chaos’ of history
Vybarr Cregan-Reid

didactic and attempts to shape the early-Victorian political inheritance. For Macaulay, the attempt to forget is a conscious one; he states that an essential part of history-making is forgetting. Moreover, with the absence of critical attention to the act of forgetting in both the form and content of the History, Macaulay’s act of forgetting is one that tries to forget itself, too. Carlyle’s narrator is aware of the literary form; Macaulay tries to forget it. Carlyle’s narrator sees a canvas; Macaulay’s, a pane of glass. The sudden conflation of history and the novel at

in Discovering Gilgamesh
The political nationalism of the Irish diaspora since the 1790s
David T. Gleeson

-American Dilemma (London, 1971), pp. 126–28, 192–208; Richard Parfitt, ‘“Oh, what matter, when for Erin dear we fall?”: music and Irish nationalism, 1848–1913’, Irish Studies Review, 34 (Autumn 2015), 485–86; Ian St. John, Gladstone and the Logic of Victorian Politics (New York, 2010), pp. 170–71. 48 Patrick Steward and Bryan P. McGovern, The Fenians: Irish Rebellion in the North Atlantic World, 1858–1876 (Knoxville, TN, 2013), pp. 125–29. 49 Christian Samito, Becoming American Under Fire: Irish Americans, African Americans and the Politics of Citizenship in the Civil War Era

in British and Irish diasporas
Andrew Williams

), p. 372. On the ‘meliorist myth’ see Robert Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford University Press, 1975), p. 8. 4 One of the best descriptions of the Victorian Briton’s self-image can be found in George Watson’s The English Ideology: Studies in the Language of Victorian Politics (London, Allen Lane, 1973). He sums it up as ‘Liberty is the English ideology’ (p. 10). 5 E.H. Carr, The Twenty Years’ Crisis: 1919–1939 (London, Macmillan, 1939), pp. 13–16; Arnold Wolfers, Britain and France Between the Two Wars (Hamden, Connecticut, Archon Books, 1963

in Failed imagination?
Stefanie Wichhart

Laron, Origins of the Suez Crisis , p. 146; Kyle, Suez , p. 130. 47 Anthony S. Wohl, ‘“Ben JuJu”: Representations of Disraeli's Jewishness in the Victorian Political Cartoon’, Jewish History , 10 (2), Fall 1996, pp. 89–114 and Anthony S. Wohl, ‘“Dizi-Ben-Dizzi”: Disraeli as Alien’, Journal of British Studies , 34 (3), July 1995, pp. 375

in Comic empires
Rebecca Gill

. 17 Richard Shannon, Gladstone: Heroic Minister, 1865–1898 , Penguin, London, 1999, p. 89, and see A. J. P. Taylor, The Trouble Makers , Pimlico, London, 1993 [1957], chapter 3. 18 H. S. Jones, Victorian Political Thought , Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2000

in Calculating compassion
Vicky Randall

’s Jewishness in the Victorian Political Cartoon ’, Jewish History , 10 , 2 (Fall, 1996 ), pp. 89 – 134 . www.jstor.org/stable/20101269 . Michael Ragussis , Figures of Conversion: ‘The Jewish Question’ & English National Identity ( London : Duke University Press , 1995 ), especially pp. 174 – 234 . 110 For the suspicions aroused by Disraeli’s novels see Wohl, ‘Dizzi-Ben-Dizzi’, p. 381–2 and Ann Pottinger Saab , ‘ Disraeli, Judaism, and the Eastern Question ’, The International History Review , 10 , 4 (November, 1988 ), pp. 559 – 78 , p. 562 . www

in History, empire, and Islam
Matthew Kidd

Victorian political spectrum, radicals spent as much time challenging the perceived elitism and moderation of local Liberal organisations as they did in attacking the Conservatives. On attending a public meeting of radical activists, our traveller would likely have found participants in a determined spirit, obstinate and sometimes aggressive in their desire to see liberal politics transformed into an inclusive and democratic movement. If the traveller had stayed in these towns for a little longer, they would also have been able to identify more subtle differences in the

in The renewal of radicalism
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Laura Schwartz

; others remained loyal to Holyoake for historical reasons or because they resented Bradlaugh’s authoritarian style of leadership. Most rank and file members engaged with both Holyoake’s vision of positive Secularism at a local level and Bradlaugh’s struggles on the national. 51 The Secularist movement reached the height of its powers in the 1880s, by which time Charles Bradlaugh had come to figure as one of the heavyweights of Victorian politics. 52

in Infidel feminism