Superpower rivalry
Author: Joseph Heller

Four questions stand before the historian of the cold war and the Arab-Israeli conflict: 1) Did Israel and the US have a 'special relationship'? 2) Were Soviet-Israeli relations destined for failure from 1948? 3) Was the Arab-Israeli conflict insoluble because of the cold war or in spite of it? 4)Was detente between the superpowers the key to solving the Arab-Israeli conflict? Israel failed to get a security guarantee from the US because if it were granted ally status the Arab states would turn to the Soviets. Instead of a security guarantee Kennedy used the nebulous term 'special relationship', which did not bind America politically or militarily. Relations with the USSR looked promising at first, but the Zionist ideology of the Jewish state made it inevitable that relations with would worsen , since the Kremlin rejected the notion that Soviet Jews were by definition part of the Jewish nation, and therefore candidates for emigration to Israel. As for the Arabs, they were adamant that the Palestinian refugees return en mass, which meant the destruction of of Israel. No compromise suggested by the US was acceptable to to the Arabs , who were always supported by the USSR.The Soviets demanded detente cover not only the Arab states and Israel, but Turkey and Iran as well. Consequently the Middle East remained a no-man's-land between the superpowers' spheres of influence, inexorably paving the way for the wars in 1956 and 1967.

Abstract only
Sabine Lee

6 African conflicts Around the same time as the Balkan Wars shook Europe, a wave of genocidal conflicts rippled through the African continent. They displayed patterns previously not characteristic of warfare in general and tribal warfare in particular. While violence, civil unrest, insurgencies and civil wars had been a recurring feature in many countries of the African continent, since the late 1980s, a number of large-scale and long-running conflicts of immense brutality, increasingly involving the civilian population, both women (as most numerous victims of

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
Abstract only
Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

3 Identity conflict A basic feature of the universal human condition is the need to find commonality with others and form larger associations at the individual, group, and community level, and this is at the heart of the concept of identity. A variety of factors, ranging from physical attributes, language, and culture to societal norms and structures work to promote a selfawareness and self-consciousness of sameness with a larger collective. A significant positive benefit resulting from this shared identity is the ability to provide protection and security

in African security in the twenty-first century
Tarja Väyrynen

BURTON’S PROBLEM-SOLVING conflict resolution includes a version of human needs thinking. What is particular to the version – as argued in the previous chapter – is that it forms the very core of his conflict and conflict resolution theory. Furthermore, his human needs theory rejects the importance of culture in international conflict resolution. This chapter aims at studying

in Culture and international conflict resolution
Screening war in Kosovo and Chechnya
Cerwyn Moore

4 Globalisation and conflict: screening war in Kosovo and Chechnya It may be argued that one of the defining features of contemporary world politics has been the alleged resurgence of insecurity as a source of different forms of war.1 The end of the Cold War thus led to a reconsideration of questions of meaning in IR, alongside a broader set of debates about ‘asymmetrical’, ‘fourth generation’ and ‘irregular warfare’. At around the same time the Gulf War issued in a consideration about the role of technology, gesturing toward a form of state-to-state conflict

in Contemporary violence
Maurice Hayes

14 Moving out of conflict Dr Maurice Hayes Introduction When Maurice Hayes lectured on ‘Moving out of conflict’ on 4 June 2007, his title seemed especially apt, since the devolved administration which had come into existence as a result of the St Andrews Agreement was scarcely a month old. While it might have been tempting to dwell upon the political implications of what had been, by any measure, a remarkable transformation of the political dynamic, he was sufficiently immersed in the complex fabric of Northern Ireland affairs to reflect more broadly on how

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Edwin Bacon, Bettina Renz and Julian Cooper

Bacon 03 3/2/06 10:24 AM Page 48 3 The Chechen conflict In September 1999, Russian federal forces moved into the Republic of Chechnya, a constituent part of the Russian Federation located in the North-Caucasus region. This military campaign came to be known as the second Chechen war, following on from the first Chechen war of 1994–96, and an uneasy period of peace and de facto self-rule lasting for three years between 1996 and 1999. This peace was decisively broken when in August 1999 a unit of Chechen fighters under the leadership of former Soviet General

in Securitising Russia
Negotiations at the end of British rule in the Shan States of Burma (Myanmar)
Susan Conway

all levels of society, importance was attached to rank, ethnic identity and tribute relations. The Shan states after British conquest of Burma When the British expanded their empire eastwards from India to Burma at the beginning of the nineteenth century, they created conflict with King Bodawpaya (ruled 1819–53) that led to the first Anglo-Burmese War of 1824–26. The ensuing peace treaty, ratified at Yandabo forty-five miles from the then Burmese capital of Ava, gave the British the southern province of Tenasserim, control of the port of Moulmein and the states

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
Parvati Nair and Julián Daniel Gutiérrez-Albilla

Part II Culture and conflict According to Edward Said, ‘culture is sort of a theatre where various political and ideological causes engage one another. Far from being a placid realm of Apollonian gentility, culture can even be a battleground on which causes expose themselves to the light of day and contend with one another’ (Said, in Edwards, 1999 : 249). This quotation from Said shows how culture

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
Abstract only
Bernadette C. Hayes and Ian McAllister

The post-cold war era has witnessed a proliferation of intrastate conflicts based on ethnic differences. Intrastate conflicts, or civil wars, have now replaced interstate conflicts, or international wars, as the most prevalent and deadliest form of violence in the international system today (Wallensteen, 2012 ). Currently, 95 per cent of wars are civil wars, and the large

in Conflict to peace