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The Future of Work among the Forcibly Displaced
Evan Easton-Calabria
Andreas Hackl

working people, including those engaged through digital labour platforms. This includes decent work objectives and key declarations by the ILO, its Conventions and Recommendations, as well as its Constitution. Standards on freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining, non-discrimination and equal renumeration, as well as the elimination of forced labour and child labour, are all key tenets that digital and non-digital work should uphold ( ILO, 2021 : 204

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Emma Tomalin
Olivia Wilkinson

have an office and a constitution and be able to demonstrate a track record in humanitarian work. This is of course a desirable check and balance to reduce the misappropriation of funds, but at the same time had the adverse effect of leaving out the most local and informal actors who may not be registered with the RRC. Moreover, one respondent from a Muslim NGO recalled the lengthy and complicated process that they had to go through to register their organisation with the RRC

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This book quantifies international organizations’ affiliation with particular values in their constitutions, like cooperation, peace and equality. The statistical and legal analyses tease out from the data the actual values contained in international organizations’ constitutions and their relationship with one another. Values like cooperation, representation and communication often appear together in international organizations’ constitutions. However, divide these organizations into groups – like regional versus universal organizations – and a kaleidoscope of different patterns in these values emerges. In the kaleidoscope, the reader clearly can see distinct groupings of organizations and values. With data pointing the way, many new – and seemingly contradictory – interpretations of international organizations law emerge. Not only does this book provide a map of international organizations’ values, it provides a healthy start towards fully understanding that map, thereby helping global governance take a quantum leap forward.

On late modernity and social statehood

Populism, neoliberalism, and globalisation are just three of the many terms used to analyse the challenges facing democracies around the world. Critical Theory and Sociological Theory examines those challenges by investigating how the conditions of democratic statehood have been altered at several key historical intervals since 1945. The author explains why the formal mechanisms of democratic statehood, such as elections, have always been complemented by civic, cultural, educational, socio-economic, and, perhaps most importantly, constitutional institutions mediating between citizens and state authority. Critical theory is rearticulated with a contemporary focus in order to show how the mediations between citizens and statehood are once again rapidly changing. The book looks at the ways in which modern societies have developed mixed constitutions in several senses that go beyond the official separation of legislative, executive, and judicial powers. In addition to that separation, one also witnesses a complex set of conflicts, agreements, and precarious compromises that are not adequately defined by the existing conceptual vocabulary on the subject. Darrow Schecter shows why a sociological approach to critical theory is urgently needed to address prevailing conceptual deficits and to explain how the formal mechanisms of democratic statehood need to be complemented and updated in new ways today.

A comparative guide
Series: Understandings

Political systems are shaped by the societies in which they function. For this reason, it is helpful to know something about the historical, geographical, social and economic settings against which they operate. It is also helpful to understand something of the values and ideas which have mattered and continue to matter to those who inhabit any individual country. This book examines the background factors that help to shape the way in which political life and processes operate in Britain and America. In particular, it examines the similarities and differences in the political culture of the countries. Constitutions describe the fundamental rules according to which states are governed, be they embodied in the law, customs or conventions. Liberties and rights are of especial concern in liberal democracies, which claim to provide a broad range of them. The book examines the protection of liberties in both countries, in particular the right of freedom of expression. In advanced Western democracies, the media perform a major role. The book deals with the impact on political life of the two major mass media: the press and television. Elections are the main mechanism for expressing the public's collective desires about who should be in government and what the government should do. The book examines a number of issues about the functioning of elections in two democracies, looking at the electoral system, and the way in which voters behave and the influence upon their voting.


Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the age and has been the focus of a burgeoning political science literature. This book considers democratization across a range of disciplines, from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies. The construction of democratization as a unit of study reflects the intellectual standpoint of the inquirer. The book highlights the use of normative argument to legitimize the exercise of power. From the 1950s to the 1980s, economic success enabled the authoritarian governments of South Korea and Taiwan to achieve a large measure of popular support despite the absence of democracy. The book outlines what a feminist framework might be and analyses feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. It also shows how historians have contributed to the understanding of the processes of democratization. International Political Economy (IPE) has always had the potential to cut across the levels-of-analysis distinction. A legal perspective on democratization is presented by focusing on a tightly linked set of issues straddling the border between political and judicial power as they have arisen. Classic and contemporary sociological approaches to understanding democracy and democratization are highlighted, with particular attention being accorded to the post-1989 period. The book displays particularities within a common concern for institutional structures and their performance, ranging over the representation of women, electoral systems and constitutions (in Africa) and presidentialism (in Latin America). Both Europe and North America present in their different ways a kind of bridge between domestic and international dimensions of democratization.

Laura Cahillane

6 Themes and influences No nation can pursue the path to self-government free from all external considerations and untrammelled by the intellectual influences descending from the past.1 Introduction In order to understand the thinking behind the 1922 Constitution, it is necessary to consider the document in the light of its intellectual and political context. The 1920s were years of momentous significance for Ireland because, after centuries of oppression and revolutionary struggle, the Irish people had finally gained the freedom to construct a new State for

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution

Introduction What do the numbers describing each international organization’s constitution tell us about these ’ principles? The Caribbean Telecommunication Union’s constitution may mention equality more than any other constitution, literally twice as often as the Indian Ocean Rim Association’s and the Organisation for Islamic Cooperation’s. How do these numbers compare with those of their peers? Do the high-frequency mentions of efficiency in the constitutions of the Association of Caribbean

in The values of international organizations
How social subsystems externalise their foundational paradoxes in the process of constitutionalisation
Gunther Teubner

(only) against the state, but also, selectively and purposefully, against the organised professional institutions of the economy and of other functional systems that they hold responsible for seriously distorted developments. The last remarkable phenomenon is the great disparity in status between different types of constitution: the state constitution, the economic constitution and the constitution of

in Critical theory and legal autopoiesis
Abstract only
Laura Cahillane

Reflections A new page of Irish history is beginning. We have a rich and fertile country – a sturdy and intelligent people. With peace, security and union, no one can foresee the limits of greatness and well-being to which our country may not aspire.1 It was in the spirit of the above quotation from Collins that the first Constitution of the modern Irish State was drafted. There was hope and enthusiasm for the future of the fledgling state. Now that the Irish people had finally gained the freedom to construct their own political and legal institutions, it was

in Drafting the Irish Free State Constitution