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German-Jewish literaryproposals on garden cities in Eretz Israel
Ines Sonder

would have been the only possible one a thousand years ago. It is foolish to revert to old stages of civilisation, as many Zionists would like to do.’ 14 Comprehensive drafts of building plans and about a hundred different types of houses would be designed by young Jewish architects prior to the mass emigration. Local groups in the Diaspora would have plans of the prospective towns

in Garden cities and colonial planning
The era of inertia in corporate affairs
Joe McGrath

bombastic politicians and the clergy, rural Ireland was a ‘wasting society’ (Lee, 1989: 334). Many farmers had small non-viable holdings (Hannon and Commins, 1992). Mass emigration was so pronounced that the Irish were considered to be ‘vanishing’ (O’Brien, 1954). Of every five children born between 1931 and 1941 in Ireland, four of them emigrated in the 1950s (Tobin, 1984: 156). It is no wonder that historians have associated this period with terms like doom, drift, stagnation, crisis and malaise, with one Irish writer even describing 1950s Ireland as ‘the climate for

in Corporate and white-collar crime in Ireland
Bryan Fanning

. Neither have those made unemployed by the substitution of livestock for people. Emigration has given to Ireland, for over a century, conditions approximating to ‘full employment’ with no large pool of unemployed labour to form a source of competing non-unionised labour, working either as self -employed persons or for non-union firms. These virtually ‘full employment’ conditions brought about by mass emigration, have been fundamentally different from the normal conditions of massive, growing labour surpluses in the former capitalist colonies.21 As argued no less

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland
Semantics and the Scottish diaspora
Paul Basu

populations from rural areas to the industrializing urban centres as well as the first waves of mass emigration – migrations driven as much by the so-called ‘pull factors’ of the New World (land, opportunity, the prospect of wealth, etc.) as by the ‘push factors’ of rural poverty, famine and, indeed, avaricious landlords. 19 Finally, it should be noted that Christina’s grandparents emigrated from Scotland in the early twentieth century, at least fifty and ninety years after the Clearances that occurred in Skye and Sutherland

in Emigrant homecomings
Abstract only
Dimitris Dalakoglou

) or later European Central Bank (ECB), which began to enforce neoliberal governance in Eastern European countries. This led to the formation of a system with minimal social provisions, precarious underpaid labor, public austerity, privatizations, mass emigration, and so on. The aggressive neoliberal governance that was applied in postsocialist countries during their—endless1— transition has also been applied to the periphery of West Europe2 since the euro crisis of 2010. This process has meant yet another reconfiguration of the internal EU boundaries, increasing

in The road
T. M. Devine

itself mean that the people were either submissive or resigned to their fate. Indeed, arguably the most remarkable demonstration of a collective response to the new order, was through mass emigration rather than physical resistance. Migration both to the Lowlands and across the seas was a safety valve which dissipated some of the social tension building up in the Highlands, in the southern cities and the transatlantic emigration communities. By the last quarter of the nineteenth century, however, second generation Highlanders in urban Scotland were among the most

in Clanship to crofters’ war
Abstract only
Mary Gilmartin

expand their expertise and training and to make more money, and in turn are replaced by migrant doctors from elsewhere. The Irish Medical Organisation (IMO), in a campaign against cuts to doctors’ salaries, claimed that cuts would result in mass emigration of doctors from Ireland (IMO 2013). This claim understated the extent to which emigration is already a key aspect of the working lives of doctors, in Ireland and elsewhere. In her unpublished study of medical migration in the context of Ireland, Angela Armen comments that Irish doctors tended to emigrate

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century
Brid Quinn and Bernadette Connaughton

greater affluence, consumerism and increased social mobility. These changes also led to a desire for political and social pluralism. Patterns of people movement altered hugely. 5306ST New Patterns-C/lb.qxd 42 3/9/09 16:45 Page 42 Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland Economic difficulties in Ireland had always resulted in mass emigration (particularly, post-Famine, in the 1950s and in the 1980s) but since the 1990s there is significant immigration made up of returning Irish emigrants and immigrants from all over the world seeking employment

in Europeanisation and new patterns of governance in Ireland
Tea, bread and nutritional decline
Ian Miller

could be moulded, through food intake, to suit economic ends. The mass emigration that accompanied the Famine fortified these ideas on Irish labouring potential. Many labourers emigrated to urban-industrial centres in America, Canada and Britain where they often secured employment in lowpaid, backbreaking jobs as they lacked capital and skills.8 They also tended to enter and leave work on a seasonal basis, being employed as harvesters or railway navvies.9 In 1852, land agent William Bullock Webster reported that Irish emigrants who had arrived in Canada, although

in Reforming food in post-Famine Ireland
Disease, conflict and nursing in the British Empire, 1880–1914
Angharad Fletcher

than the perception of danger. As plague spread, municipal leaders in Hong 47 Angharad Fletcher Kong fell increasingly under pressure to act decisively. Global scrutiny and the potential introduction of international quarantine rules threatened the colony’s economy, which depended on trade. This and the danger of mass emigration by the colony’s transient labour pool were enough to prompt extensive alterations to municipal systems. Cities like Hong Kong are of significance because, as imperial hubs of trade and transportation networks, they were amongst the first

in Colonial caring