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witchcraft in the western Netherlands, 1850–1925

This chapter shows what thinking and acting in terms of witchcraft, in short the witchcraft discourse, implied for the way people dealt with space and to a lesser extent with time, as well as for what they thought about the body. This analysis is embedded in a discussion about the bewitched, the people they suspected of bewitchments, and the people they called in to help them. In the nineteenth century boiling a black chicken alive was, in fact, rather popular, especially in mid and western areas of the Netherlands. In some way the boiling chicken was connected to the witch and would draw her to the house. Numerous stories show a similar connection between witches and cats. The newspaper reports show that the diagnosis of a bewitchment and an unwitchment ritual were not individual events; family members and neighbours were actively consulted.

in Witchcraft Continued

This chapter discusses the extent and nature of witchcraft accusations in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France, and provides a general survey of the published work on the subject for an English audience. The only way of maintaining popular participation was to accommodate folk beliefs, involve people in the manifestation of the supernatural, and promote the practical application of religion. Both historical and ethnographic sources provide ample evidence that people can think in terms of witchcraft without being devoutly religious. In France the paysan under any economic definition ceased to exist by the 1960s, but as a cultural construct it remains a strong, symbolic reality to this day. For Arnold Van Gennep popular beliefs regarding the supernatural were living aspects of current culture, albeit a 'traditional' one at odds with modernity, and to record and measure them required a subtle and systematic method of oral interviewing.

in Witchcraft Continued
medical pluralism and the search for hegemony

This chapter explores the presence of magical elements in everyday life during the modern period. Broader folkloric compilations about the whole of Spain, which cover the first four decades of the twentieth century, also inform us of the presence of fortune-tellers and bewitchers. Two key sources for understanding the role of magical healing during the modern period are folklore surveys and newspapers, though their use is fraught with problems. The medical and folkloric sources also describe many other magic-based therapeutic procedures dedicated to treating diseases whose etiology was not usually popularly associated with the supernatural. In the context of health professionals' efforts to achieve hegemony in health and illness management, the label of curandero was used to refer to an unspecified reality considered as a 'moral illness that swarms everywhere like a confederate indestructible germ which poisons all it touches'.

in Witchcraft Continued

This chapter provides a general overview of vernacular magical beliefs and practices in Italy from the time of unification to the present, with particular attention to how the traditions have been studied. Belief in witchcraft was once widespread in all regions of Italy. Witch beliefs, folk healing and the legend complexes related to them have generally been studied as aspects of 'folk', 'unofficial' or 'popular' belief or religion. The folkloric witch appears predominantly in legends and folk tales. In Italian folklore she is usually female. The chapter adopts Leonard Primiano's use of the term 'vernacular' and broadening its application beyond the study of religion to include magic. The evil eye belief complex encompassed a range of phenomena, from the often inadvertent jettatura or malocchio (evil eye) to more intentional magical attacks, known as attaccatura ('attachment'), fascino or legatura ('binding'), and fattura ('fixing').

in Witchcraft Continued
witchcraft on the borderline of religion and magic

This chapter deals with a special form of witchcraft that is practiced only amongst Hungarians living in Transylvania. The Hungarians have scarce cultural contacts with Romanians; indeed, the cases in the chapter are the examples of any connection between their respective religions. The maleficium (bewitchment) employed by the witch is an occult interaction between two people, and it is either accompanied by some actual deed or not. With his practising of magic, healing and divination, the figure of the Romanian priest resembles the 'Christian magicians' of the Western Middle Ages, as Valerie Flint termed those figures working on the borderline of magic and religion. The characteristic feature of religious witchcraft in Csík is the integration into the system of the holy person's ordeal and rites conferring blessing and curse. Some of the methods of priestly magic and divination found in Csík have direct parallels with the realms of Western Catholicism.

in Witchcraft Continued
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black magic and bogeymen in Northern Ireland, 1973–74

The 'Black Man' genre means two things in the context of this chapter. First, stories about black magic and sacrificed pets were current as a collective discourse in the Ardoyne a good year before they begin to show up in the newspapers. Second, with ghost stories and the like, they are further evidence of an enchanted universe within which the Troubles were experienced and interpreted, and within which the black magic rumours circulated and found a degree of credence. There were a few articles on witchcraft and black magic in the Northern Ireland press in 1974. Black magic sacrifice was not the only kind of 'ritual killing' which was in the news in Northern Ireland at this time. Northern Ireland, like many other places, had long played host to muttered intimations of black magic and satanism, supposedly often practised by people in high places. ,.

in Witchcraft Continued

This chapter discusses Lindsay Anderson's understanding of authorship as expressed through his critical writings. It analyses how each of his films reveal both his authorship as a practitioner including his reflections on his work.

in Lindsay Anderson
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Lindsay Anderson’s private writing

This chapter examines Lindsay Anderson's diaries, private writings documenting his reflections on his own personality, his colleagues, friends, family and his sexuality. His journals echo his lamentations over the absence of love in his life and the impossibility of finding it. They also recorded details of his travels with the Army and his visit to Vienna.

in Lindsay Anderson
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This chapter discusses the early films of Lindsay Anderson for Richard Sutcliffe Ltd. These films include Meet the Pioneers, Idlers that Work, Three Installations and Trunk Conveyor. In addition to episodes of Robin Hood for television, Anderson also wrote and directed a twenty-minute film Foot and Mouth made for the Ministry of Agriculture during the 1955 epidemic. Anderson also directed films influenced by Humphrey Jennings. These films include Wakefield Express (1952), Thursday's Children (1953), O Dreamland (1953) and Every Day Except Christmas (1957).

in Lindsay Anderson

This Sporting Life is the first feature film of Lindsay Anderson. Anderson had been impressed by David Storey's novel This Sporting Life and wanted to direct the film himself. This chapter considers the claims to authorship and production of This Sporting Life. Storey adapted his own deeply personal novel and the resultant film script was the first collaboration between Storey and Anderson.

in Lindsay Anderson