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Vera Brittain’s post-traumatic stress disorder

the First World War, ‘English psychiatry,’ which was ‘[b]uilt on an ideology of absolute and natural difference between women and men ... found its categories undermined by the evidence of male war neurosis’.64 The First World War ‘was the first and ... last time during the twentieth century that men ... occupied a central position in the history of madness’.65 Showalter observes that for Darwinian psychiatrists, ‘[f]emale intellectual inferiority could be understood as the result of reproductive specialization, and the “womanly” traits of self-sacrifice and service

in Gender and warfare in the twentieth century
Performing femininities for clandestine purposes during the Second World War

oriented towards male pleasure. In these respects, stereotypes of femininity have remained largely intact. That particular forms of physical appearance are often crucial signifiers of femininity can be illustrated in the quotation above, in which Jos Mulder Gemmeke recalls that hair and clothing could enable her to pass through train stations unchallenged. She notes that as key markers of gender difference, they could assist in the performance of femininity. Long hair, for example, has generally been constructed in Western culture during the nineteenth and twentieth

in Gender and warfare in the twentieth century

9 Government and politics in the twentieth century, 1915–40 The previous two chapters have suggested that during the course of the twentieth century some of the features of Gibraltar which had formerly characterised it as principally a British fortress and naval base had been unsettled. From the beginning of the century the absolute right of all British subjects to take up residence in this British colony had been removed, and by its close the Gibraltarian status of civilians, with attendant rights of belonging, and immigration controls over all others, had not

in Community and identity
Who are they? Experiences of children, mothers, families and post-conflict communities

rape in Rwanda4 among others are suggestive of mass sexualised violence and children fathered by foreign soldiers as a phenomenon of the twentieth century. However, intimate contacts between foreign soldiers and local civilians, both coercive and consensual, are likely to have been a feature of almost all wars, from antiquity5 into modernity; in the middle ages, the Vikings had a reputation for bravery as much as for pillage and rape, as did Genghis Khan and his Mongol soldiers;6 similarly, during the crusades it was customary for kings to enlist women to provide

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
An introduction

serving as a starting point for this study of CBOW in the twentieth century. Beyond the life courses of the children themselves, and beyond giving them a voice to explain their experiences as children of foreign – and often absent – fathers in volatile postconflict situations, focal points of the analysis will be the responses of others to the children whose mere existence frequently creates personal, familial, societal, cultural and political problems in what are often very unsettled postconflict communities and states. In the early twenty-first century, children

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
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Jobs, families, mobilities and social identities

‘ordinariness’ was fundamental to individuals’ social positioning and that identifications based upon ‘feeling ordinary’ extended well beyond the work place to encompass the material and JONES WORKING CLASS PRINT.indd 27 03/05/2012 10:31 28 The working class in mid-twentieth-century England emotional experiences of home and neighbourhood. The remainder of the book looks at the experiences, memories and meanings attached to these sites and social institutions. I begin this chapter, however, by examining narratives of working class ‘decline’ and interrogating the idea that

in The working class in mid-twentieth-century England
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The children of the Vietnam War

, and Vietnam is the place.’8 After the dramatic events in November 1963 which saw the South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem ousted in an American-approved coup, 114 CBOW in the twentieth century with Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu murdered and President Kennedy assassinated, a notable change in US commitment in Vietnam was symbolised by the new President Lyndon B. Johnson. A product of the Cold War who accepted whole-heartedly the domino theory, President Johnson was convinced that if Vietnam fell to communism, so would – eventually – America’s more

in Children born of war in the twentieth century

12 Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century 1  Sources of radicalism In the 1970s, the idea of working-class writing flared up in the collective imagination. Local areas became sources of creativity that connected to a much wider movement. The local was conceived as both a geographical and a political space that was ripe with democratic potential. Writing and publishing workshops were part of a more general set of social movements, intellectual trends and traditions. They had roots in debates on education, culture, class and the

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century
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Children born of war: lessons learnt?

CBOW in the twentieth century soldiers’ departures when long-term liaisons became known or, even more significantly, if soldiers were known to have caused pregnancies. As a rule, national governments did not accept responsibilities for their soldiers’ conduct and, as a rule, they did not accept the consequences by way of supporting their soldiers’ illegitimate children or those children’s mothers. Historically, some notable exceptions to this general pattern existed. The French, as explored in the case of the Second World War and mentioned in the context of Vietnam

in Children born of war in the twentieth century
Critical pedagogy in the community

142 Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century 8 Chuck out the teacher: critical pedagogy in the community Writing and publishing workshops contested the processes and forms of organisation. The democratisation of writing and publishing was one element in a radical vision of social change. A great deal of discussion and work went into the development of alternative structures as a means of building solidarity with local people. Ends and means were interrelated and process was seen to have major implications for product. For example

in Working-class writing and publishing in the late twentieth century