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for three decades’, later contributing to the controversial collection Soundings: Essays in Christian Understanding (1962). 30 John Baillie (1886–1960) was a Church of Scotland minister and theology professor at Edinburgh University and, with his brother Donald, among the most significant twentieth-century Scottish theologians. 31 Baillie met Oldham as a student assistant at the 1910 Edinburgh conference. He studied philosophy and theology in Edinburgh, Jena and Marburg; after the war, he attended the Auburn Theological Seminary in

in This is your hour

9 Beyond the witch trials Counter-witchcraft and popular magic The archaeology of counter-witchcraft and popular magic Brian Hoggard One aspect of the study of witchcraft and magic, which has not yet been absorbed into the main stream of literature on the subject, is the archaeological record of the subject. Objects such as witch-bottles, dried cats, horse skulls, shoes, written charms and numerous other items have been discovered concealed inside houses in significant quantities from the early modern period until well into the twentieth century. The locations

in Beyond the witch trials

Each age has used the debate about the English Reformation in its own way and for its own ends. This book is about the changing nature of the debate on the English Reformation, and is a study of Reformation historiography. It focuses the historiography of the Reformation as seen through the eyes of men who were contemporaries of the English Reformation, and examines the work of certain later writers from Thomas Fuller to John Strype. The book discusses the history of the sixteenth-century Reformation as written by modernist professional historians of the later nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries. All through the Tudor times the tide of Reformation ebbed and flowed as the monarch willed. The book sets out modern debates concerning the role of Henry VIII, or his ministers, the Reformation and the people of England, and the relative strength of Protestantism or Catholicism. Catholics and Protestants alike openly used the historical past to support their contemporary political arguments. Additionally, the nature of religious identities, and the changes which occurred in the Church of England as a result of the Reformation are also explained. The history of the Reformation in the 1990s and 2000s has to be viewed within the context of research assessment and peer review. The book shows how persistent the threat of postmodernist theory is to the discipline of history, even as leading academic authorities on the Reformation have rejected it out of hand.

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This book is based on a paradox and a coincidence. The paradox is that at the end of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a period of profound secularisation in France, there emerged a generation of Catholic writers and intellectuals who were convinced that the rumours about God’s death had been greatly exaggerated. The coincidence is that, in the same period, English literature too saw a significant revival in Catholic writing. In France, the late novels of Joris Karl Huysmans, the plays of Paul Claudel and the religious

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914

In this chapter we will attempt to synthesise some of the most common accounts of the history of secularisation in France and England during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Our aim is to arrive at some understanding of the nature of individual and societal secularisation in England and France, and assess, in spite of the vast differences, what correlations can be drawn between the two countries. This will help us understand more clearly the preoccupations of the French and English Catholic authors and the conditions of belief under which they

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
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4 The holy household In working-class, early twentieth-century Dublin, Elaine Crowley’s mother conserved resources by purchasing used furniture. She did not hesitate, however, to buy a new framed picture of ‘Our Lady of Good Counsel’, placing it on the most prominent spot on the wall.1 Another working-class Dublin woman remembered that her mother blessed the house each evening with holy water, which she applied with a feather.2 ‘Like every Catholic house in Ireland’, wrote Maura Murphy, who was a child in the 1930s, we had a holy water font by the back door near

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
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in vain to repeat the Lord’s Prayer as I felt it would help me, but I kept getting it all mixed up.1 Hyland’s concern that she would ‘lose’ her religion once she entered the Anglican Church testifies that some memoirists feared that they were ‘getting it all mixed up’ and not living up to the ideal of Catholic girlhood. Hyland worried that she would be changed, even contaminated, by her entry into the space of the Church of Ireland. From an early age, Hyland’s religion was integral to her identity – Catholicism was a central force in the lives of early twentieth-century

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
A study in language politics

nationalism, and by fostering a new and more popular culture of Arabic reading that included men and women from modest social classes, these BFBS editions had the potential to shift extant social hierarchies. 7 At the same time, their distribution had the potential to make and remake communities of readers within territories that bore some relation to colonial borders, which Britain (in what is now Egypt and Sudan) and France (in the Maghreb) were imposing during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The society

in Chosen peoples

Western Christian tradition engaged with the democratic idea up until the middle of the twentieth century. Particular emphasis will be placed on three elements in this story: the real and imagined Protestant contribution to the evolution of democratic politics; the post-revolutionary Roman Catholic reaction and opposition to democracy; and the mid-twentieth-century Vatican conversion to the merits of democracy. As noted in the introduction, we are concerned here to provide an account of key developments, but also to keep in mind the question of why these particular

in Christianity and democratisation
Open Access (free)
witchcraft continued

Enlightenment, from the late seventeenth through to the end of the eighteenth century, here we pay attention to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Once again we have sought to bring together an interdisciplinary group of scholars, whose contributions demonstrate the value of applying the analytical tools of sociology, anthropology, folkloristics and literary studies to historical sources. Above all they show that the history of

in Witchcraft Continued