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The empire and international crisis in the 1930s

As international tension increased during the 1930s, the idea that the empire could compensate for French demographic, economic and military weakness next to the fascist powers gained favour in Paris. It was widely assumed in government and parliament that the colonial contribution to any future war in Europe would exceed that of 1914–18. And

in The French empire between the wars

In the early twenty-first century, children fathered by foreign soldiers during and after conflicts are often associated directly with gender-based violence. This book investigates the situations of children born of war (CBOW) since the Second World War, provides a historical synthesis that moves beyond individual case studies, and explores circumstances across time and geopolitical location. The currently used definitions and categorisations of CBOW are presented together with an overview of some key groups of CBOW. Specific conflict areas are chosen as key case studies on the basis of which several core themes are explored. These conflicts include the Second World War (1939-1945) with the subsequent post-war occupations of Germany and Austria (1945-1955). The Vietnam War (1955-1975), the Bosnian War (1992-1995), some African Conflicts of the 1990s and early 2000s, in particular in Rwanda (1994) and Uganda (1988-2006), are also examined. In the case studies, the experiences of the children are explored against the background of the circumstances of their conception. For example, the situation of the so-called Bui Doi, children of American soldiers and Vietnamese mothers is examined. The experiences of Amerasian CBOW who were adopted into the United States as infants following the Operation Babylift and those who moved as young adults following the American Homecoming Act are juxtaposed. The book also looks into the phenomenon of children fathered by UN peacekeeping personnel as a starting point for a discussion of current developments of the international discourse on CBOW.

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3033 The ancient Greeks 12/7/07 13:36 Page 144 Chapter 8 War and economy War, for all the human suffering that it engenders, can be analysed in economic terms. War has an economic impact on states that undertake it, whether they are successful or not. Indeed, their success or failure can sometimes be explained in terms of how well their economic structures allow them to conduct the type of war upon which they have embarked. Economic motivations can play a part in the reasons for waging war and on the course campaigns take. Economic resources are consumed by

in The ancient Greeks at war
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3033 The ancient Greeks 12/7/07 13:36 Page 177 Chapter 9 War and religion The experiences and traumas of war have often been explained, perhaps even comprehended, through recourse to the divine and the supernatural. As the saying goes, there are no atheists in a foxhole. So what did the Greeks believe was the contribution of their gods to war? How did communities prepare for and come to terms with war through their methods of communication with the divine and use of rituals? This chapter will be concerned with understanding how the religious values of the

in The ancient Greeks at war
Editors: Lucy Bland and Richard Carr

This volume offers a series of new essays on the British left – broadly interpreted – during the First World War. Dealing with grassroots case studies of unionism from Bristol to the North East of England, and of high politics in Westminster, these essays probe what changed, and what remained more or less static, in terms of labour relations. For those interested in class, gender, and parliamentary politics or the interplay of ideas between Britain and places such as America, Ireland and Russia, this work has much to offer. From Charlie Chaplin to Ellen Wilkinson, this work paints a broad canvass of British radicalism during the Great War.

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3033 The ancient Greeks 12/7/07 13:36 Page 43 Chapter 3 The makers of war During the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus I (664–610 BC), a group of Greek marauders, equipped, so the story goes, as hoplites in bronze armour, landed on the Egyptian coast (Hdt. 2.152). Psammetichus, recalling an oracle that ‘bronze men’ from the sea would help him against his enemies, recruited them, and after having used them to good effect, rewarded them for their services with land near Pelusium (2.154). Their descendants, and other Greeks attracted by the rewards of

in The ancient Greeks at war

10 European war, Conservative struggle Malmesbury did not reassure me, & it was impossible that he could, because I perceive, that he was himself very imperfectly acquainted with the state of affairs. (Disraeli to Derby, 7 January 1859 Disraeli never reads a word of my papers wh[ich] go round, & knows nothing but what the Jews at Paris & London tell him. (Malmesbury to Derby, 7 January 1859) The last months of Derby’s second administration witnessed the first serious clash between Disraelian and Derbyite ideas about foreign policy in government. Disraeli

in Peace, war and party politics
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Opposing Aberdeen, 1852–55

6 From peace to war: opposing Aberdeen, 1852–55 [I]f we had remained in office the Eastern question would have assumed a very different appearance – at all events, no mismanagement of ours could have made it look worse than it does at present. (Derby to Malmesbury, 24 September 1853) The years after 1852, from the formation of the Aberdeen coalition until its downfall in January 1855, were marked by Conservative frustration, in foreign affairs no less than any other area. In the Conservatives’ view, their successors were responsible for, on the one hand

in Peace, war and party politics

9780719079740_C02.qxd 2 5/8/09 9:20 AM Page 47 Michael Byers Terrorism, war and international law Introduction Most of humanity shares two searing memories: the collapse of the World Trade Center on 11 September 2001; and a hooded man standing on a box with wires dangling from his outstretched hands. These images capture the painful truth that both sides in the so-called ‘war on terror’ have violated fundamental rules. But while non-state actors can violate international law, only states are able to change the law, making their breaches of greater

in ‘War on terror’
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3033 The ancient Greeks 12/7/07 13:36 Page 63 Chapter 4 The patterns of war Warfare in the age of the hoplite It is often argued that the farmers of the phalanx ensured that ideological constraints were placed on hoplite warfare. The primacy of land in their ideology of protecting the oikos (the homestead) promoted battle, involving the clash of opposing phalanxes, as their main mode of conflict resolution (Hanson 1995, 221–89). Stephen Mitchell (1996, 97–8), for example, argues that most hoplite battles were fought for control of farmland, rather than

in The ancient Greeks at war