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like the Cape and New South Wales that had to wait until the 1830s and 1840s for representative political institutions. These connections between the Church and the reformist elements in colonial political culture raised difficult questions for senior colonial clerics, as it was by no means clear how episcopal authority would sit with both the democratic temper of colonial society and the tradition of

in An Anglican British World
Politics and ecclesiology in the ninth century

dynastic ambitions and the exercise of papal authority. When ‘our’ Willibert took up the episcopal position in 870, amidst the rivalries between Louis the German (king of East Francia from 840 to 876)  and Charles the Bald (r. 843–77, emperor in 875), the controversy did not end immediately. Owing his position to the former, Willibert remained Louis’s loyal supporter throughout his reign. Yet where Gunther’s episcopate had been turbulent, Willibert’s was characterised by problems of its own, brought about by, among others, his disputed election. As a result, he was faced

in Religious Franks
Abstract only

Termes de la Ley (1624) could state that a ‘Chapleine, is hee that performeth Divine service in a Chappell’, such a narrowly technical definition hardly begins to reflect the range and variety of the chaplain’s duties and occupations.8 This collection of essays, by contrast, aims to provide a fuller, more detailed account. As well as recording the numerous types and functions of early modern chaplains, it also explores the important, but often hidden, contributions made by chaplains of different kinds and in different locations – royal, episcopal, noble, gentry

in Chaplains in early modern England

hospital. There is very little documentary evidence for S. Simplicano for the fifty years after 1097 so it is difficult to determine what, exactly, was its relationship with the church authorities. There is one document from 1147 signed by the archbishop of Milan that includes the hospital among ecclesiastical properties. This indicates continued control by the episcopal office.9 Evidence suggests however, that the question was not permanently settled. On 5 June 1170 Archbishop Galdino reiterated the ecclesiastical position, placing the hospital under his protection, but

in Hospitals and charity

surprisingly, Irish bishops objected as the concession effectively dismantled the link between the bishop and his clerical underlings and inevitably compromised episcopal authority in the diocese, already weakened by absenteeism. This would be a feature of the Irish Church during most of the early modern period. In contrast to England and Scotland, Ireland did retain a Catholic hierarchy but, due to government disapproval, Irish prelates were not free to act as a Tridentine episcopate. If Trent was the council that consecrated the pastoral and governmental role of the bishop

in College communities abroad

Hincmar, at least, the parish was not merely an aspect of his pastoral duties, it was a kind of miniature of the God-given ecclesiastical order. That centrality placed it at the intersection of different forces at work in Frankish society: developing practices of episcopal authority, a steadily growing population and economy, intensifying processes of social differentiation and, above all, debates about how best to bring traditions of often incompatible texts written in quite different social and cultural contexts to bear on contemporary society. As a result, the parish

in Hincmar of Rheims
History and context

a reciprocity in case of need, that is a form of insurance against hardship. Sweetinburgh describes the exchange as a form of ‘spiritual economy’ within the new urban material economy.58 The hospital movement arose with the growth of the communal government, which also recognized the need for public administration over private authority, particularly in northern Italy in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. There, the nascent communal governments desperately tried to wrest sovereignty from both the imperial throne in the north and the nearer episcopal powers

in Hospitals and charity

work on the clerical profession.94 They opened the door to pluralities for those qualifying under the Henrician acts, and to further advancement for all types of household chaplain. For clergymen in trouble with the authorities – sequentially puritans, episcopalians and dissenters – chaplaincies provided political protection and an alternative source of employment. Secondly, episcopal chaplains were often a bishop’s trusted lieutenants, drawn into diocesan administration and providing vital support, advice and inside information. It is no surprise that an effective

in Chaplains in early modern England
Catholicism in Nantes, 1560–89

few structural reforms in the 1550s and 1560s. But clerical life was not entirely forlorn. Among some priestly groups there was a resurgence of piety in the 1550s. This was encouraged by the appointment of a new bishop in 1554, Antoine de Crequi. De Crequi was resident, and he participated actively in diocesan administration and in the direction of spiritual affairs. The bishop was eager to revive episcopal authority. His first act was a general visitation of the diocese in 1554, personally visiting the parishes of the city. Secondly, a synod was held in 1556, and

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98

, ecclesiastical authorities’ direct concern with baptism and the soul of the newborn baby meant that they demanded a central role in the regulation of midwives. They feared that women might use unconventional treatments or have recourse to cunning folk or magical healers. 6 There is little precedent for a thorough investigation into the office of midwife in Irish medical historiography. Midwives were nameless birth attendants, who like so many women left very little imprint on surviving historical sources. A paucity of records has

in Early Modern Ireland and the world of medicine