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Series:

Anne Ring Petersen

configured in distinctive ways by the specific conditions and histories of each art-producing locality. Thus, he acknowledges that the hegemonic notions of what it is for art to be ‘con-temporary’ (i.e. with time, meaning up to date, modern and vanguard) are determined by temporal and geographical differences. Moreover, these differences constitute a classificatory framework within which some forms of art are recognised as ‘contemporary’ while others are dismissed (as belated, provincial or ‘minor’).5 In Smith’s understanding, ‘the widespread art of 3 86 Migration into

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The EU–Africa migration partnership

The limits of the EU’s external dimension of migration in Africa

Tine Van Criekinge

13 The EU–Africa migration partnership: the limits of the EU’s external dimension of migration in Africa Tine Van Criekinge The intensification of migratory movement between Africa and Europe since the early 2000s has encouraged renewed political engagement from the EU towards the continent. This engagement has mainly taken the form of migration dialogue between the European Union (EU) and migrant-­sending countries in Africa, aiming to create channels for communication and cooperation between Europe and its southern neighbours. Dialogue with migration

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Enrico Pugliese

10  Enrico Pugliese International migrations and the Mediterranean Introduction: the Mediterranean migration scene and its evolution In recent decades the Mediterranean has witnessed an expansion of the migration routes and exchanges taking place within its shores and a parallel modification of the actors involved, of the areas where the most relevant processes occur, and of the economic, political and military drivers that activate the movements and determine the direction of travel. Within this frame migrations are at the same time the effects of events that

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Case study two

Labour migration policy change in the UK

Alex Balch

5 Case study two: labour migration policy change in the UK Introduction When in September 2000 Barbara Roche announced a fundamental change in British policy on labour migration, it was at a conference of the Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) held at the British Bankers’ Association in London. The new direction announced by Roche was all about recognising the ‘potentially huge benefits’ of migration, and changing policies to adapt to the global economy by bringing in new ideas, including from other countries, and carrying out more research on

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Family, love, marriage and migration

The push and pull of private life

A. James Hammerton

6 Family, love, marriage and migration: the push and pull of private life ‘In the end, family is what matters, not the place you live’ (Barbara Totten, emigrated to Perth 1981).1 If work, career and opportunity have been primary drivers of migration, dynamics of family and marriage have been no less powerful in shaping migrants’ life stories. Family priorities can eclipse career in the quest for a new life, and migrations sparked initially by work or adventure can be vulnerable to unanticipated turns in family relationships. The rising tide of divorce from the

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A. James Hammerton

8 Changing faces of modern migration Changes in British migration practice since the end of the Second World War have been dramatic, reflecting the modernisation of British society itself. In previous chapters we have seen an accumulation of new influences working over several decades to transform the migrant experience. The most profound shift was emergence from deep postwar austerity to relative, although fluctuating, prosperity, accompanied by expanding standards and opportunities in education and employment. A predictable response among intending migrants

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Alex Balch

8 Conclusions Countries in Europe at the beginning of the twenty-first century, despite significant and growing levels of immigration, possessed rather undeveloped systems to deal with labour migration. A lack of capacity for good decision making on labour migration in Europe was something noted since the work of the Council of Europe in the mid-1990s (Salt 2001). This was combined with a distinct lack of political appetite to undertake reform until the economic arguments were overwhelming – that is, until the rise in immigration flows had occurred and there

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Gavan Titley

9 All aboard the migration nation Gavan Titley Introduction Across the eras of boom and bust, public culture in Ireland has consistently had something of the airport bookshop about it. If it’s not quite true that there is no I in Ireland, highly publicised, motivational books and media events unflaggingly invited us Irish to recognise ourselves in the fairground mirror of popular typologies, and, once snugly interpellated, to be resilient, forward-looking and flourishing. In 2013, New Thinking = New Ireland1 set out to top up the national reserves of confidence

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Case study one

Labour migration policy change in Spain

Alex Balch

4 Case study one: labour migration policy change in Spain Introduction At the end of 2003 a group of migration experts gathered to publish a short note on the Spanish government’s immigration policy. The text described policy as ethically obscene, politically dangerous, juridically inadmissible, and summed it up as ‘legal apartheid’.1 The ‘Madrid Manifesto’ was an unprecedented castigation of government policy, and was a direct reaction to the change in direction that had been taken post-2000, in particular the legislative reform of November 2003 passed by the

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Alex Balch

frames on labour migration shift and change. The work provides evidence of an increasing but variegated role for expertise in policy formation and demonstrates how, and in what ways, national modes of policy-making intervene to resist or facilitate policy convergence via particular types of communities and coalitions. The approach of the work addresses the observation that we often know very little about the flow of ideas, and what actually drives politicians and policy-makers to make decisions about immigration (Sciortino 2000) – decisions that ultimately have far