include bilateral relations with neighbouring states and
superpowers, as well as issues relating to national and international security,
foreign trade and investment, migration, multinational corporations and defence
(Kapur, 2002). Many nationalists and old-fashioned Indian academics and politicians make two claims about India’s foreign policy goals: first, that they are based
on a national consensus (for example, the UPA government’s Year End Review
2004), and second, that they have remained the same since Nehru’s time. Such
academics and analysts either do not want to
Ottomans, creating a new vilayet of Kosovo.1 The general deterioration in
religious relations was heightened by mass expulsions in ‘Muslim lands taken
over by Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro in 1877–8’.2 These mass migrations
from parts of Serbia were coupled with the movement of refugees into and
the emigration of Serbs out of Kosovo. At the international level, the influence of the Ottoman Turks continued to decline, while new Slav nationalist
movements sprung up in the South Balkans, producing a general sense of
unease in the region. In short, the
considerable attention in academic accounts of our globalizing age
as it is identified, paired or treated in conjunction with
communication, cosmopolitanism, crime, culture, democracy, the
economy, education, empire, the environment, global civil society,
global governance, health, human rights, integration, international
institutions, law, migration, non
as driven only by economic interests (Yeo,
2010). Inevitably, that the EU chose to support ASEAN’s endeavours in
eradicating terrorism, piracy and organised crime, as well as tackling issues
The EU’s security strategy in the ASEAN region
in regards to human rights and migration, reflected the EU’s increasing
recognition that mutual prosperity lies in the region’s ability to remain
politically stable, both ASEAN-wide as well as within individual member
Developing non-traditional security co-operation
Terrorism, organised crime and illegal migration
Organization for Migration, Mission in Ukraine. Migration in Ukraine. Facts and Figures, 2nd
edn. Kiev: IOM-MU, 2013, p. 4.
114 International Organization for Migration, Mission in Ukraine. Migration in Ukraine, pp. 11–12. Remittances
from the diaspora in e.g. North America are included in the total.
115 Yurchenko, ‘Capitalist bloc formation’, p. 171.
116 Victor Pinchuk Foundation, n.d. (online); Yalta European Strategy, n.d. (online).
117 De Ploeg, Ukraine in the Crossfire, p. 47.
118 Leshchenko, ‘Ukraine’s puppet masters’.
119 Matuszak, The Oligarchic
those of us who live in working states, is a highly attenuated chequerboard construction of recent origin. Many states are already a patchwork of significantly different ethnic and cultural communities. With the pace of international migration, this phenomenon can only increase. The need for difficult negotiation between communities or across cultural difference within the state is already a reality. Nor, in practical, lived life, does community – as a sustained process of mutual responsibility and deliberation, to borrow loosely from the terms of Brown’s Hegelian
, for the Turks’ purchasing power is one-third the EU average 14
Similarly threatening is the migration of millions of industrious Turks who would move in to take the jobs of Europeans. There remains the issue of human and minority rights, and the abolition of Article 312 of the Turkish penal code – that practically accuses anyone who dares to criticize the state with violating the law against preaching hatred. Disputed aspects of Turkish democracy also mar relations, for instance, the issue of political freedoms, the role of the military in
since 1999 the Royal Jordanian airforce – collaborate is their airforces’ intentions to establish a radar network to pinpoint and identify migration routes of predatory birds in the autumn and spring, to minimize the chances of aircraft–birds collision. Altogether, some ninety Turkish F-16 pilots have already received training in relation to bird–plane collisions and related Israeli safety regulations. (In 1995 an Israeli F-15 crashed, its two pilots killed, following a collision with a bird. During the last twenty-five years 170 European and Israeli military aircraft
Does Europeanisation require a geopolitical choice?
Sweden and Poland, the initiators of the EaP. In the case of the Swedish EU
Presidency, Belarus is mentioned within the context of EU foreign relations
aimed at increasing the level of EU–EaP relations and supporting ‘these
countries’ integration with the EU in important areas such as trade, migration and legislation’ (Swedish EU Presidency, 2009). The Polish EU Presidency Programme (2011) affirms that it would seek to encourage Belarus
to cooperate with the West, provided that the country observes principles
of human rights and democracy. The latter wording includes
: The Challenge of Mass Incarceration (New York: Cambridge University
26 For recent elaborations on Woodward’s pioneering work on these topics, see
S. Hahn, A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South
from Slavery to the Great Migration (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press,
2003); E. L. Ayers, The Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
27 These are criticisms articulated, ironically, by former Secretary of Defense
Robert Gates, who served presidents George W. Bush and Barack