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another severely cut adaptation) was a waif, a little Orphan Annie Joan with punk hair, but wearing ‘grown-up’ clothes, a medieval-style tabard with a fleur de lys on the front, inscribing her with the official insignia of France. In 2000, Fiona Bell played a Joan in skirts: no child, but a formidable woman whose voice marked her as ‘other’, Bell’s muscular Scottish accent

in Shakespeare’s histories and counter-histories
Abstract only
The minor films

offended the ‘widest possible audience’, but it must have failed to hit the mark with its true target demographic: students. It is hard to imagine the teenagers who were then cheering for iconic punk bands like The Ramones and the Sex Pistols finding much to excite them in such a production, even if they had found other approaches to ancient Rome (such as I, Claudius) compelling. Small wonder, then, that

in Julius Caesar
On last animals and future bison

accord it would seem, to relocate to ‘Soul City’), as if these were the real ecotopian values. There are apparently no problems with any biological hazards such as invasive species, extinctions, pathogens or large-scale, confined animal industries, since ecology has been preset for steady-as-she-goes. Despite the celebration of the unwashed, waste-free hippy lifestyle as the greatest good, Ecotopia turns out to be way too clean, managed, heteronormative, pain-free and quiet (no electric guitars, please, and God help us from our unwashed rivals, the punks) to have to

in Literature and sustainability
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Manchester and the devolution of British literary culture

degree of success or recognition, however (SuAndi and 3970 Postcolonial Manchester:Layout 1 16 28/6/13 12:37 Page 16 Postcolonial Manchester John Lyons being notable exceptions), and the chapter ends by speculating on the future of black poetry not only in Manchester but across Britain. As part of its overall argument, the chapter also links Manchester’s performance poetry scene (both its black poets and celebrity punk poets like John Cooper Clark from Salford) with Merseybeat poets, Adrian Henri and Roger McGough, and the socalled ‘Poetry Revival’ of the 1960s

in Postcolonial Manchester

form of mass entertainment, like punk, rock and roll, and the novel before it, the computer game has been seen as offering some sort of threat to society, particularly by providing a space in which otherwise taboo or outlawed behaviour (spitting and swearing, the sexual expression of pelvic gyration, adultery, and aggression as the first resort in problem solving) is given free range. But the confusion of game for real is indicative of individual dysfunction and ‘misreading’ just as much as the confusion of the films A Clockwork Orange (1971) or Natural-Born Killers

in More than a game
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The short stories and The Cement Garden

literary tradition and what it might encompass. If there is something wilfully anarchic and iconoclastic in the short stories, the iconoclasm carries the desire to open up British literary culture. Perhaps this is the intellectual wing of the punk movement, catching a mood in which raw cultural forms are generated to disturb the status quo. This need not imply immaturity, of course: the intellectual underpinnings of anarchy posit considered social alternatives to political structures deemed to be corrupt or outmoded. Possibly, McEwan’s stories embody a parallel form of

in Ian McEwan
Saturday

imagination, the short stories should be unsurprising seems slightly disingenuous. With hindsight, it is hard not to see something anarchic in the early stories, the literary wing of ‘punk’ culture shaking up the literary establishment, widely perceived as moribund in the 1970s.2 That perception of 1970s literature may be questionable, less convincing with hindsight; but it certainly had a bearing on the perceived ‘shock’ element of McEwan’s early work. Yet this may also be to clinch McEwan’s point: there are proven models to show that literature can render extreme

in Ian McEwan

far from ‘ongoing’ or linear. Like the makers of popular music in the long 1989 as described by Clover – Nirvana, 162  Alan Hollinghurst KLF, Madonna – Jarman and Hollinghurst make work that often challenges Fukuyama’s fantasy of history’s end. For Clover, this happened through the agitated reworking of earlier musical styles (as in Nirvana’s reworking of the styles of 1970s punk), through the use of sampling technology that amounted, in the work of the KLF, to a call for ‘a time that is not in time, a unity outside history’), or through the tincturing of smooth

in Alan Hollinghurst

plain sight and, to my knowledge, they have never been analysed. Tom of Finland is one of the most important sources for his erotic ekphrasis. Tom’s hypermasculine men – lumberjacks, farmhands, roughnecks, shower boys, workers, bikers, leathered men and, beginning in the mid1980s, blacks and punks – have been credited with transforming cruising culture as well as enabling generations of gay men to embrace and explore their sexuality. In his debut novel, The Swimming-Pool Library, Hollinghurst decorated Lord Charles Nantwich’s home with ‘Romans with great big willies

in Alan Hollinghurst

Frankenstein’s inability to cope with loss and his resultant wish to recreate life, echoing recent associations between Frankenstein and genetic engineering. 1 Still other adaptations of the novel open the way for new and unexpected associations. Gris Grimly’s Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus , for instance, makes use of punk Gothic elements, skeletal shapes and Holocaust-related imagery to reinforce issues of injustice and exclusion. Very different from all of these are Frankenstein adaptations in the world of Francophone bande dessinée 2 (BD). Under scrutiny in

in Adapting Frankenstein