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Protestant rebels, styling themselves ‘the Congregation’, quickly managed to secure either active or tacit support from most of Scotland’s political class. The religious issue was at the rebellion’s heart, and was the priority for most of its key leaders, to a greater extent than some recent historians have allowed. However, Mary of Guise’s clumsy military response to it, and the perceived tyranny of her French troops, also helped to mobilise Scottish opinion in favour of the rebels. Only now did the latent suspicion of France come to the fore. By contrast, the new

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
Still denominational and private

in 2006, the Irish Children’s Rights Alliance took up these calls from the Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.6 The publication of the Ryan Report in May 2009, the result of about ten years’ work of a special commission of inquiry, caused a nationwide shock:7 it confirmed the ‘endemic’ character of the abuse perpetrated upon children in schools and homes run by twenty or so religious congregations over the course of the twentieth century.8 This indisputable confirmation of the violence inflicted on many children in religious institutions until

in Schools and the politics of religion and diversity in the Republic of Ireland
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The Conference of Religious in Ireland (Justice Commission)

engagement, therefore, CORI Justice can be instructive on a number of levels. The CORI Justice Commission 159 Origins of the Conference of Religious in Ireland (CORI) The Conference of Religious of Ireland – formerly known as the Conference of Major Religious Superiors (Ireland)2 – is the representative body for religious congregations in Ireland both in the Republic and Northern Ireland. The CMRS was established in 1958 at the request of the Vatican, which approves its statutes, in preparation for the Second Vatican Council. Originally it was organised in two sections

in Asymmetric engagement

saved. […] The third purpose is that prayers offered in the church be surely heard. […] The fourth reason for the consecration of the church is to provide a place where praises may be rendered to God. […] Fifthly, the church is consecrated so that the sacraments may be administered there.6 The practice of consecration ensured that the church truly was God’s house on earth and that his eyes and ears would have attendance upon the building and its congregation (1 Kings, 8.29; 2 Chronicles, 6.40). The consecration ceremony enabled the community to ‘communicate with and

in The church as sacred space in Middle English literature and culture

response to Anglican preachers who regularly rebuked Presbyterians by name, the farewell sermons tended to allude to the failings of their opponents within the Church by referring obliquely to crypto-papists, Arminians, misguided dupes or worldly hypocrites going through the motions of religious ritual. Ralph Venning opined that it was not only manly, but the defining mark of a Christian to hold to the true doctrine ‘which doth distinguish a true Christian from a Hypocrite and a Counterfeit’.98 Richard Baxter, like many Bartholomeans, exhorted his congregation not to

in Black Bartholomew’s Day

so heavily laced with scripture as those intended for the godly. Thomas Wadsworth did not have such a high opinion of the congregation at St Lawrence Pountney, feeling it necessary to explain the context of a metaphor from Revelation when several other ministers did not.105 Thomas Case, on the other hand, assumed a wide familiarity with history and current affairs as well as religious doctrine when he berated Englishmen for their failure to lay the blood of Germany, Lithuania and Piedmont to heart.106 Other Bartholomeans assumed that their audiences were familiar

in Black Bartholomew’s Day

actions won them more than notoriety. Iconoclasm was a way for committed reformers to scratch their itchy religious activism. It was not likely to win converts. THE RADICALISATION OF REFORM Can Scottish Protestantism’s rising mood of militancy be taken as a sign of deepening reformist commitment, separation from the old Church and formation of definably Protestant congregations?46 The evidence is inconclusive. There is one – but only one – documented example of a formally organised Protestant ‘privy kirk’ in the 1550s, in Edinburgh. If there were ‘privy kirks’ in towns

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation

rights in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and well into the twentieth century. Pope Leo XIII in many official documents including the 1888 encyclical letter, Libertas praestantissimum, opposed modern liberties and the human rights associated with them. The right to religious liberty and the freedom of worship go against ‘the chiefest and holiest human duty’ demanding the worship of the one true God in the one true religion that can easily be recognised by its external signs. The rights of free speech and of free press mean that nothing will remain sacred: truth

in Religion and rights
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The Scottish revolution?

the structures of power is obvious. It is not merely that Scotland’s religious and diplomatic orientations were reversed. The Congregation suspended the Queen Regent from office without having any right to do so (as neutrals pointed out to them), and concluded a treaty with a foreign power in order to secure military support against their rightful rulers. Moreover, the parliament of August 1560, which gave the Reformation its first legal basis, was a very irregular assembly. The Anglo-French treaty of Edinburgh which concluded the war in July 1560 was accompanied by a

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation

of migration patterns in the mid 1990s, the most visible service-based response of the hierarchal church was the establishment in 1999 of the Refugee Project (later to become the Refugee and Migrant Project) by the Irish Bishops’ Conference. This project provided pastoral care to refugees and asylum seekers, as well as awareness and information within the church and beyond, until its closure in 2011. Religious congregations also established a number of organizations primarily targeting asylum seekers and refugees (see Table 3.3). Although in many cases staffed by

in Migrations