jumping out of the building (Barnett
and Reynolds 2009, 81). In spite of this number, there was surprisingly little news
coverage of this tragedy. Richard Drew’s image appeared only briefly –in the
New York Times and other publications –before disappearing. Those newspapers
that had printed the picture ‘were forced to defend charges that they exploited a
man’s death and stripped him of his dignity in the last moments of life by publishing this photo’ (81). To this day, images of the falling bodies cannot easily be
shown and seen in the United States.
In Germany and
William Roscoe, civic myths and the institutionalisation of urban culture
Lorenzo in Liverpool: William Roscoe, civic myths and
the institutionalisation of urban culture
Cultural institutions reflected both personal interests and shared visions of the ideal
civic life. Civic cultural leaders used languages of progress and civic humanism
to mobilise support for their specific cultural agendas. Like the leaders of the
ancient polis, cultural elites promoted histories and myths about the foundation
of their own towns to promote new cultural formations and underpin their
associated social bonds.1 Liverpool’s early nineteenth
nature (return to nature) is also reminiscent of the ecological
concerns found in France in the 1970s. Many hippies did leave their urban life to live in the
countryside in micro-communities, rejecting towns and progress and subsisting on the fruit of
their rural work and often raising goats. They criticised urban pollution and proposed another
way of life which rejected the use of chemical energy and encouraged vegetarianism. The
opening sequence of La Belle Verte combines elements of religious iconography of the
While switching current modes of transportation may help suburbanites to preserve
what has become a well established way of urban life in the modern world, other
technological developments of a much newer kind are already changing the way we
live, extending the human self in hitherto undreamt of and unpredictable directions.
Just as the private automobile changed the perception and range of personal space
in the mechanical age, so have the Internet and the explosion in computer power –
now available to every man, woman and child on
, therefore, is
to speak about the freedom of persons of a particular nationality or ethnic or
religious identity whose life is subsumed within a national territory ruled by a
Responding to Said, we agree that this is an issue, and locate it, in part, in the
fact that the terms ‘human rights’ and ‘human’ are under-defined and recondite. Before one can even begin to consider what ‘human rights’ means, it is
necessary to clarify what is meant by human. Joseph Slaughter notes:
From its inception, human rights law has relied on both philosophical inquiry
over time with ideas derived from biological taxonomies, generally expressed in the
form of organic analogies of one kind or another. In his brief but illuminating history
of biological analogies in architecture, Peter Collins16 traces their source back to the
first half of the eighteenth century and the publication of the System of Nature by Carl
Von Linnaeus17 – the very first systematic attempt to classify different members of the
vegetable and animal kingdoms. Believing, like most people of religious conviction
at that time, that all forms of life had a divine
A mere artisan?
JOHN TOMS inhabited a different world
from the people who produced the ecclesiological discourse on stained glass.
It is doubtful whether he set out to gain artistic credibility, at least in
the same sense that William Warrington did; nor did he represent himself as
a pious religious artist producing Christian art. In fact, more than anyone,
Toms resembled Winston’s worst nightmare: the
corporate bureaucracy, it more
than made up for in governmental bureaucracy, and, one could argue, artists
in Eastern Europe also utilised body art as a means of countering passivity and
apathy in the face of it. In fact, contemporary Russian artist Petr Pavlensky,
discussed at the end of this chapter, has explicitly referenced this apathy as a
motivating factor for his visceral performances. During the communist period,
active engagement with the cultural sphere offered a sense of empowerment
that was largely unavailable in other areas of life. Pavlína Morganová
Lives and Loves of Images.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [Original lecture 1996.]
Mitchell, William J. Thomas. 2010. Cloning Terror: The War of Images, 9/11 to the Present.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mondzain, Marie-José. 2002. L’image peut-elle tuer? Paris: Bayard.
Morgan, David. 2012. The Embodied Eye: Religious Visual Culture and the Social Life of
Feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.
control and constraint, was reiterated and expanded upon one year later
in the manifesto Destruction of Syntax. The intoxication of intense life, he
wrote, would stir the lyric voice of the individual who
will begin by brutally destroying the syntax of his speech. He wastes no time
in building sentences. Punctuation and the right adjectives will mean nothing
to him. He will despise subtleties and nuances of language. Breathlessly he will
assault your nerves with visual, auditory, olfactory sensations, just as they come
to him … Fistfuls of essential