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, 203) insight that the state of the decaying body would have been socially significant, we need to address the physical processes of decomposition and the post-depositional processes of taphonomy in more detail. We need to understand what the ‘intermediary period’ should look like in different kinds of archaeological deposit. The taphonomy of human decomposition Over the last 30 years, there has been extensive study of just this problem in both osteoarchaeology and forensic anthropology. Knü sel (2010) has reviewed the different ways that human skeletal remains have

in Neolithic cave burials
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Collecting networks and the museum

the Archaeology of the Manchester Region (Manchester: Manchester Museum, 1936). 55 MMRs (1962–63), (1973–74). 56 NWSA 1999.3361. 57 Duncan, Civilizing Rituals; on the culture of philanthropy more generally, see F. Ostrower, Why the Wealthy Give: The Culture of Elite Philanthropy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995). 58 Knell, The Culture of English Geology; I. Kopytoff, ‘The cultural biography of things: commoditization as process’, in Appadurai (ed.), The Social Life of Things, pp. 64–91. 59 MMCM vol. 1 (13 May 1889); vol. 2 (15 May 1907); R. M. C. Eagar

in Nature and culture
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in the burial rite. Patrick (1985) has described the conventional understanding of archaeological research as following a metaphor of ‘the record’. Human social action in the past is understood to have created a record. Archaeologists uncover fragmentary remains of this record and must ‘strip away’ the distortions created by everything that has subsequently happened to the objects they discovered. Once they have done this, it is assumed that the past social understandings which created the record can be reconstructed. Patrick (1985) and Barrett (2001) have both

in Neolithic cave burials
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Family history, towns, landscape and other specialisms

) Hill (1899–1980) was a Lincoln solicitor, and his work occupied forty-five years. What impressed commentators was the way in which he used ‘in a systematic and coherent way, very rarely seen before this time, the available techniques of archaeology, topographical description, placename studies, and genealogy’.12 Town biographies fell out of favour with the academic community when a new approach to urban history reached England from the United States in the 1960s. The emphasis came to be placed not on individual towns and cities, but on the demographic, social and

in Writing local history
Challenges and technological solutions to the ­identification of individuals in mass grave scenarios in the modern context

-genocide and mass violence contexts presents a particularly pressing aim for the twenty-first century. The interest in this work stems from a number of different sources. From an academic perspective this may include legal scholars, forensic archaeologists and anthropologists, historians, sociologists, and so on. This chapter is an example of such academic interest. From a social perspective this may include those directly affected by the violent and traumatic events that require investigating, or those with the responsibility to scrutinize such events. This chapter will

in Human remains and identification
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7 Conclusions Had I plantation of this isle, my lord,– ... And were the king on’t, what would I do?... All things in common nature would produce Without sweat or endeavour: treason, felony, Sword, pike, knife, gun, or need of any engine, Would I not have: but nature should bring forth, Of its own kind, all foison, all abundance, To feed my innocent people. William Shakespeare, The Tempest, 1611 Proto-colonial archaeology of Elizabethan Ireland, particularly in the Irish Republic, has only recently begun, and caution warns against advancing firm conclusions at

in Castles and Colonists
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The role of meteorite iron in the development of iron-working techniques in ancient Egypt

32 Iron from the sky: the role of meteorite iron in the development of iron-working techniques in ancient Egypt Diane Johnson and Joyce Tyldesley The earliest evidence for the large scale smelting of iron ores in Egypt dates to the sixth century BC (Petrie 1886: 39); this strongly suggests that iron production technologies developed much later in Egypt than in neighbouring territories. However, archaeology has shown that some elite Egyptians were buried with iron grave goods long before iron production became common within their land (Carter 1927: 122, 135

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Hugh Clopton’s ‘grete house’ of c. 1483

detailed ground plans of New Place remain. Information on the appearance, location and significance of the house therefore comes from later accounts, passing references and official documentation (such as concords, rents and leases relating to the site), as well as archaeological evidence. The earliest reference to a building on this plot is Clopton’s own will of 1496: ‘my grete house in

in Finding Shakespeare’s New Place

themselves, the desire for independent farmsteads created such strong social and economic pressures that the planned towns and villages of the Elizabethan Plantation could not resist the trend toward dispersed settlement, a fatal choice, given the native population that remained. Colonization relies upon military superiority, and after 1598 the conquest of Ireland became fixed government policy. Military experience and leadership was important to the elite that constituted both national government and colonial rule, and this should be reflected in its archaeology. It now

in Castles and Colonists

1 The body in the cave During the Neolithic period in Europe, caves and other underground spaces were used for burial. The evidence for this practice is reasonably well understood but, with certain exceptions such as the Belgian Middle and Late Neolithic (Cauwe 2004), cave burial has usually been regarded as something tangential to the broader narrative of the European Neolithic. Caves are often treated as places for simple expedient burial, perhaps for less socially favoured members of society, when compared to an assumed norm of burial in monuments (see, for

in Neolithic cave burials