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The challenge of a globalising world
Caroline Turner and Jen Webb

by the Gestapo and again, after the defeat of Germany, first by the Soviet NKVD and then by the British. Denounced as a Nazi, he was 137 Globalisation and identity John Young, Safety Zone, 2010. Detail, ‘Victim’. denied permission to work and, with his family, was quite literally starving to death when a group of citizens in Nanjing learned of their miserable circumstances, and sent them first money and then monthly food parcels. Rabe died in Germany in 1951. A similarly tragic fate was experienced by his Safety Zone colleague, the American missionary Minnie

in Art and human rights
Phule, Paine, and the appeal to Queen Victoria
Jimmy Casas Klausen

Paine’.67 Baliraja included any religion that promoted 87 The other Mahatma’s naive monarchism human equality and a simple rational morality that did not impose intermediary priests or scholars between a person and God or Truth. Phule associated Baliraja with the British government and Scottish and American missionaries. As such, the Brahmans, besides directly inciting the Sudratisudras against the British, had to find novel ways to protect perquisites they amassed in their hereditary role as arbiters. In the new political context of a British Empire in India, they

in Colonial exchanges
Alexis Heraclides and Ada Dialla

and smoking it’. 106 In the 1860s and 1870s, under the guidance of Kung, works of international law were translated into Chinese, starting with Wheaton’s treatise and followed by those of Woolsey, Martens, Bluntschli and Hall (all of them translated by W. A. P. Martin, who initially wanted to translate Vattel’s but found it too antiquated) as well as the Manuel de lois de la guerre of the Institut. 107 Martin, an American missionary and member of the

in Humanitarian intervention in the long nineteenth century
‘Victim’ nations and the brotherhood of humanity
Rebecca Gill

such violence had been over for two months. News of the ‘Bulgarian atrocities’ first arrived in letters sent from the region’s Christians to Robert College in Constantinople, an American missionary school with strong ties to the Bulgarian intelligentsia. 4 A year earlier, news of similar massacres had reached Britain following a rebellion in Bosnia. This earlier

in Calculating compassion
Private organizations and governmentality
Giles Scott- Smith

global governance was being put forward, indeed one that resonated throughout the rest of the century. Mark Mazower has chronicled how the League of Nations came about not from any universal angst for further war, but from ‘a fusion of American missionary zeal and British imperial calculation’ – a necessary development to prevent further anarchy at the hands of absolutist chauvinism. 25 This was deeply nineteenth century in conception: it was deemed as evolutionary in development, led by an Anglo-American sense of superiority that was firmly rooted in a hierarchical

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
Philip D. Morgan

Jews and other groups attract interest. 55 Among Protestant missionaries, one of the more interesting findings has been that most evangelists were not white Anglo-Americans but members of the same groups that missionaries were trying to convert. Hundreds of African, Afro-American, and Native American missionaries evangelized blacks and Indians throughout the Atlantic world. 56 Finally, in the Catholic realm, perhaps the most stimulating recent book has been Stuart Schwartz’s All Can be Saved . Who would have guessed that, at a time when Catholic orthodoxy was

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
Zheng Yangwen

. Feng Yuxiang flirted with everyone from American missionaries to the Soviet Union, which earned him such nicknames as the ‘Christian General’ and the ‘Defection General’. He defected from the Qing Army in 1911 and from Yuan Shikai when Yuan declared himself Emperor. When the old ‘big three’ warlords fought against each other, he supported each of them but ultimately betrayed all of them. He fought in the anti-Japanese coalition but was sidelined by Jiang Jieshi, who sent him to visit America in September 1946, possibly fearing that Feng might work with the CCP. Feng

in Ten Lessons in Modern Chinese History
Tim Allender

The discrediting of the Nagpur normal school was underscored by a broader gender double standard of the era regarding epidemics of venereal disease, which attributed blame to local Indian women and which rationalised the non-examination of European men. 140 (Only towards the end of the century would the undercover work of American missionary feminists Katharine Bushnell and Elizabeth Andrew, in army barracks

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
Robert Bickers

the Chinese was influential, and was often recommended as a starting point for the inquisitive. An American missionary, Smith (1845–1932) wrote the most prominent, and longest-lasting, such analysis; one survey as late as 1925 rated it top of a list of ‘The Most Helpful Books on China’ and second best-seller in three Shanghai foreign-language bookstores. 10 Smith’s object was to analyse defects in

in Britain in China
Abstract only
Daniel Laqua

between colonial matters and Belgian refugee relief: Herbert Samuel who, as President of the Local Government Board, organised state-led aid for the refugees, had previously supported the Congo reformers.102 Furthermore, when an activist of the American Red Cross organised the transfer of relief funds, he contacted Vandervelde since he recalled the socialist’s defence of the American missionaries Morrison and Sheppard in the Congo.103 Acts of charity for the Belgians were not always a matter of disinterested humanitarianism. As Peter Gatrell has pointed out, refugee

in The age of internationalism and Belgium, 1880–1930