empire 1918–1964 (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1993). The character of James’s anti-imperialism is debated in
many of the works cited in other notes here, and in Anthony Bogues,
Caliban’s Freedom: the early political thought of C. L.
R. James (London: Pluto, 1997) and John Gaffar La Guerre,
The Social and Political Thought of the Colonial
), pp. 148–53, 208–14.
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Bodies emblazoned 107
dead Indian’.75 So Trinculo, stumbling upon the wild Caliban, contemplates
how a simple name-change will outwit the ‘holiday-foole’, who pays willingly
for an outlandish spectacle but refuses charity to a humbly born, homeless
compatriot despite their somatic sameness.76
With this last quip, the Bard may have been offering a facetiously reflexive one as well, his own audience cheerfully rewarding the swarthy, strolling
player who appeared Thames-side, limping down
categories: some supernatural generations are marked by maternal impression and/or witchcraft that could have potent effects on a child (exemplified by Caliban, affected by his mother's witchcraft); generative events accompanied by portents, when births are followed by strange natural phenomena; births seen as prophecies or signs; and changeling children. Political disruption could lead to unnatural births, and these could facilitate conjuring, as in Macbeth. Explaining supernatural events, while not reducing their threat, could at least render the supernatural legible
source of epiphanal vision; Caliban’s irresistible
centrality, delighting in the heavenly music and dreams most
courtiers neglect (3.2.137–45) and provoking
Prospero’s admission of relationship (5.1.278–9).
Shakespeare persistently engenders epiphany out of simplest clay. He
gives poignant self-revelations not only to the vulgar and
literal-minded but also to the woefully hard
sex and empire, see in particular,
Robert Young, Colonial
Desire: Hybridity in Theory, Culture and Race
(London: Routledge, 1995 ) and McClintock, Imperial Leather . Influential
earlier work in this vein includes Mannoni, Prospero and Caliban , pp.
102–7, 110–17; and Nandy, The Intimate Enemy , pp.
Biological metaphors in the age of European decolonization
-colonialidade (Lisbon: Livros Cotovia, 2006);
Boaventura de Sousa Santos, ‘Between Prospero and Caliban:
Colonialism, Postcolonialism, and Interidentity’,
Luso-Brazilian Review , 39:2 (2002), pp.
Not all did so, however: see Frederick Cooper,
Citizenship Between Empire and Nation: Remaking France
Possibilities and precariousness along Australia’s southern coast
Australia, Adelaide, 1964, facsimile edition (orig. T. and
W. Boone), 2 vols.
See Eyre, E. J. 1984 Autobiographical
Narrative of Residence and Exploration in Australia,
1832–39 , edited and with an introduction by J.
Waterhouse, Caliban Books, (orig. ms. written 1859, St
an attempt by Prospero to restrict Caliban from maximising a new found
advantage. It was, if you like, the equivalent of requiring Edward Kamau
Braithwaite and other Caribbean writers to express themselves in
‘real’ English rather than nation language. The further
dimension, as in other cases, was that the ‘white dominions’
were almost invariably seen to be on the side of the former imperial
and, at last, with allegorical names and identities for central
characters. Puck (a projector of Oberon’s daemonic urges)
splits into ‘Ariel’ and ‘Caliban’, a
division that gives ‘Prospero’ a responsible and
linguistically powerful magic far beyond his prototype. If Titania
evoked laughter at the fairy queen’s vanity, as well as awe