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Ireland’s referendum and the journey from Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft
Eugene O’Brien

Irish people participated in a constitutional referendum on two   147 ‘Belief shifts’ issues:  the thirty-​fourth amendment to the Constitution was about permitting same-​sex marriage, while the thirty-​fifth amendment suggested reducing the age of candidacy for the post of president of Ireland from thirty-​five to twenty-​one. Ireland had long been seen as a de-​facto theocracy in which the Catholic Church held a hegemonic position. Issues of law, health and education have all been subject to strong levels of control, both implicit and explicit, by the Catholic

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Nils Freytag

era of Enlightenment holds true outside educated society. 6 The Catholic Church and state administration were confronted time and again with petitions and queries regarding witchcraft and magic, which contain many differing views and interpretations. The opinions of the acting parties will be the subject of the following discussion, which analyses the intentions of the medical profession and the state administration, the reaction of the Catholic

in Witchcraft Continued
The Batavia leprosy asylum in the age of slavery
Stephen Snelders

a working relationship between the colonial state and the Roman Catholic Church. This was possible because of the ambivalence in governmental policies regarding the management of the Batavia asylum. The vast majority of the sufferers in the asylum were a special category of slaves; they were unproductive. Since the slaves only cost the government money, it was unwilling to invest resources in the asylum. For instance, although the asylum was established in 1824, medical services were only provided in the 1850s. To provide support and sustenance for the sufferers

in Leprosy and colonialism
Daniel Gerster

However, the ‘Cold War religion’ approach is certainly right in stressing that Christian anti-communism is of crucial importance in understanding how Roman Catholics perceived the inherent threats of the nuclear arms race. An examination of Roman Catholic perceptions of nuclear deterrence should not only look at the concepts themselves but also ask who supported them. Furthermore, it is essential to take into consideration the fundamental organisational structures of the Roman Catholic Church during the twentieth century. From the nineteenth century onwards, a

in Understanding the imaginary war
Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

:47 Introduction to emigration within the Catholic Church, to which about another fifth to a quarter of eighteenth-century migrants nominally belonged, are more difficult to discern. If Miller’s assertion that the majority of these early Catholic migrants were ‘rootless’ holds true, however, then it seems unlikely that their removal caused their clergy a great deal of practical trouble or mental anguish.8 Outward migration in the nineteenth century was a different matter. By 1815, Ireland’s population had expanded to almost seven million, more than double what it had been only a

in Population, providence and empire
Fergal Casey

14 The ‘greening’ of Cardinal Manning Fergal Casey Henry Edward Manning, son of a governor of the Bank of England, graduate of Harrow and Oxford, ended his life being denounced for home rule politics and socialistic economics. Manning expected to ‘sink to the bottom and disappear’1 when he resigned as Anglican archdeacon of Chichester in 1850 before converting to Catholicism, but in 1865 the pope personally intervened to appoint him archbishop of Westminster and leader of the Catholic Church in England, and in 1875 created him a cardinal. Manning’s increasing

in Irish Catholic identities
The work of rescue and refuge homes
Leanne McCormick

originally begun, and was attached to the Church of Ireland Magdalen Chapel on Donegall Pass. The Catholic Church was represented by the Good Shepherd Sisters, who came to Belfast in 1867. They established a ‘Home for Destitute Penitents’ in the centre of the city before moving to premises on the Ormeau Road.2 The Belfast Midnight Mission, a non-denominational organisation, was established in the 1860s, and sent a missionary out onto the streets at night to find women and bring them back to the rescue home.3 The Salvation Army opened its rescue home in Wellington Park in

in Regulating sexuality
Joe Cleary

increasing levels of indifference to religion generally. Catholic influence in the areas of education, health, political policy and legal practice has been rolled back. The changes also extend into the realms of the sacred, and the liturgical: Catholic churches are frequently packed to or beyond capacity at Christmas or for Easter Week services, communions and confirmations remain important rites of passage for most families, and Irish Catholic funeral rituals retain their importance. But Sunday masses, holy days and confessional obligations no longer regulate ordinary

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
A tale of two traumas
Brendan Geary

3 Shattered assumptions: a tale of two traumas Brendan Geary The focus of this book is on the recent unparalleled experience of prosperity of the people of Ireland, and the Icarus-­like crash that occurred in 2008, the consequences of which are still unravelling today. At the same time as the Irish economy suffered from near collapse, the Catholic Church was going through its own agonies, most specifically as a result of the revelations related to the emotional, sexual and physical abuse of children, as revealed in the Ferns (2005), Murphy (2009), Ryan (2009

in From prosperity to austerity
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Mervyn Busteed

its poverty and high rate of infectious disease. Their mix of limited economic resources, traditional social solidarity and reaction to the alien environment in which they found themselves meant that they concentrated in districts such as Little Ireland and the much longer-lived Angel Meadow. In these areas much community life was concentrated around the local Catholic church. This provided not only spiritual ministrations but clergy who were also community leaders and brokers between their parishioners and wider society. The parish was also the base for a dense

in The Irish in Manchester c. 1750–1921