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Brian Sudlow

blocking promotions in the military on the basis of an index which recorded the religious sympathies and practices of officers. 33 Still, even before the affair, blaming an enemy within for societal and political breakdown was not uncommon among Catholics, or indeed among other groups. The Jesuits themselves were the victims of conspiracy theories that had been strong currency in Republican circles. 34 Anti-Semitism is of course the most controversial of the reactions against the enemy within and the one most associated with Catholicism at the

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
Marie Mulvey-Roberts

adaptation, Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror (1922), directed by F. W. Murnau. As a seminal and much-loved film, it is not surprising to find anti-Semitic interpretations being brushed aside. Its release fed into a resurgence of anti-Semitism in Germany stoked by conspiracy theory and Artur Dinter’s best-selling novel, The Sin against the Blood (1918). In the 1920s, anti-Jewish discourses, exacerbated

in Dangerous bodies
The case of the Timisoara revolutionaries
Anca Mihaela Pusca

repression, conspiracy theories around this issue abound. People want concrete answers and unitary enemies to point the finger at. Unfortunately, they may not be so easily identifiable: the secret structure of the Securitatea, and the broken chain of command, made certain decisions untraceable and the identification of “the guilty” difficult. The unresolved issue of the disappeared bodies continues to hang as a deep disappointment above the head of the Romanian Revolution. The fact that only a handful of people have been prosecuted for these murders has left much of the

in Revolution, democratic transition and disillusionment
Brief presentation of political parties in terms of ideology
Věra Stojarová

centre of the Right–Left axis, thereby abandoning some features which had previously been key – the creation of Greater Croatia, xenophobia and conspiracy theories – while still trying to attract Right-wing voters by focusing on welfare chauvinism and populist antiparty sentiment. However, with the new leadership, the party returned to its previous political profile and style. As for economic issues and party’s stance towards welfare chauvinism, the programme is a mixture of Leftist and Rightist concepts. Small private firms are seen as the basis of economic

in The Far Right in the Balkans
Guy Austin

surrounding the death of Saïd and the identity of the BMW-driving éminence grise in Bab El-Oued City – captures the disempowering sense of confusion that characterised the black decade, and that saw conspiracy theories proliferate in response to massacres like that at Bentalha (see Evans and Phillips 2007 : 238-42). The brutality of adult society is emphasised by contrast with children (especially Salim, who acts as a witness to

in Algerian national cinema
Philip Norton

a direction that left them perplexed or hostile. His intense logic was perhaps less of a problem than his embrace of conspiracy theories. Even those who were his political or personal friends could be embarrassed by some of his utterances. His austere manner hid a shy and loyal individual, but probably few recognised those characteristics. What does tend to unite friends and foe alike is the recognition that he was an outstanding orator, one of the best of his generation.

in Conservative orators from Baldwin to Cameron
Kristóf Gosztonyi

permits are issued, etc. Other aspects of a functioning state are, however, absent. Another difficulty in proving the absence of centralised power is the possibility that an unknown strong man or a grouping of power holders might control events from behind the scenes – a conspiracy theory. Additionally, the politics of the region are full of lies, deceit and confusion. Owing to these difficulties and a general lack of information the evidence presented here is sketchy and is drawn from a variety of sources. Furthermore, a major part of the argument is based on indirect

in Potentials of disorder
Open Access (free)
Albanian society and the quest for independence from statehood in Kosovo and Macedonia
Norbert Mappes-Niediek

. Villages frequently lack public places like pubs, mosques, or assembly halls as all social life remains in the family. Neighbourhood is unimportant compared with family links. When an enemy came, villagers in western Europe would gather in the market place; in Albanian villages, there is no such thing. Everybody would seek shelter within their own family walls. It is still amazing how little people know about each other, and this fosters an atmosphere in which suspicions and conspiracy theories flourish. But on the other hand, the family provides for all an individual

in Potentials of disorder
The collapse of reason and sanity in Alan Moore’s From Hell
Monica Germanà

narrative situated within a later chronological period: both the Prologue and the Epilogue are set in September 1923, 35 years after the events that unravelled in Whitechapel. In the first section, we learn that the visions that would have supported the Royal conspiracy theory and William Gull’s charge of the Whitechapel murders were an invention of the self-proclaimed psychic Robert

in Alan Moore and the Gothic Tradition
American gothic to globalgothic
James Campbell

citizens, as they indulge in telling conspiracy theories. Flag-waving patriotism and nationalist myth have been superseded by paranoiac counter-myths, expressing a loss of faith in government, society and, on a larger scale, humanity. Norton believes he lost the boundary dispute because he was ‘an out-of-towner’ (11). Telling David ‘it’s your town’, he expresses envy and resentment

in Globalgothic