7 A Nordic model of government? Capitalism in the north, it seems to me, has been modified and, in a sense, controlled; the profit motive in many fields drastically curbed or abolished – subjugated might be a better word. To a considerable degree … the domestic economy has been made to serve the greatest good of the greatest number. (Childs 1936: 18) When in the 1930s the Swedish Social Democrats began to build their celebrated welfare state, it was based on two strong pillars – neutrality and industry. Neutrality provided the means of avoiding the economic

in Scandinavian politics today
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Chap 6 28/8/03 1:12 pm Page 139 Judiciaries 6 Courts of law are part of the political process, for governmental decisions and acts passed by the legislative body may require judicial decisions to be implemented. Courts need to be independent to be respected, but this is difficult to achieve in practice. There is never full independence as far as appointment is concerned, and Blondel warns that in their verdicts judges cannot be expected ‘to go outside the norms of the society’.1 In Britain and America, the courts have traditionally diverged in their

in Understanding US/UK government and politics
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democratic rule and new states have been established in parts of formerly communist-controlled Eastern Europe. The names accorded to legislatures vary. The term Congress is used in some countries, as in America. Parliament is employed in Britain and the Commonwealth. On the continent, it is more common to speak of the National Assembly (as in France) or the Chamber of Deputies (as in Italy). Scotland has its own parliament, but Wales – with its weaker measure of devolution – has a National Assembly. legislature The branch of government which is empowered to make law. The

in Understanding US/UK government and politics

9 Berlusconi as head of government In the previous chapter and in chapter 4 we considered Berlusconi the campaigner and Berlusconi the party leader. In this chapter our attention turns to Berlusconi the prime minister, and to evaluating his impact as head of the governments that held office from 2001 to 2006 and 2008 to 2011. Specifically, we ask how successful he was in exploiting the position of chief executive to bring about significant change and how his performance in this respect can be accounted for. In making his political debut in 1994, he had promised

in Silvio Berlusconi
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Chap 9 28/8/03 1:15 pm Page 219 Pressure groups 9 Unlike political parties, pressure groups do not aspire to govern the country and are concerned with a relatively narrow range of issues. Much of their work is nonpolitical, but in as much as their concerns and aspirations are affected by government they seek to acquire an influence over the conduct of public policy. In this chapter, we are concerned with examining the range of groups in Britain and the United States, the ways in which they operate and their effectiveness. In addition, we consider the

in Understanding US/UK government and politics
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Chap 8 28/8/03 1:13 pm Page 178 Political parties 8 Political parties are organisations of broadly like-minded men and women which seek to win power in elections in order that they can then assume responsibility for controlling the apparatus of government. Unlike interest groups, which seek merely to influence the government, serious parties aims to secure the levers of power. In this chapter, we examine their relevance in Britain and America. The emphasis is on the competition between the two main parties in either country for the control of public offices

in Understanding US/UK government and politics
American foreign policy and Irish nationalism, 1865–70

believed they had changed from being an ‘untrained peasant’ to becoming a ‘disciplined warrior’ and, thus, were even better prepared to fight for the cause. Consul William West had reported from Dublin in spring 1864 that Fenians were ready for action which made the British government ‘nervous’.3 However, the movement was weakened by disagreement * NARA, D/S, USD,6, 6, T199, Second series, M. W. Fitzgerald to West, 21 January 1868. 1 Ibid., USC, 8, 8, T196, Brooks to Evarts, 3 March 1881. 2 Wallace and Gillespie (eds), The journal of Benjamin Moran, 1857–65, 1

in American government in Ireland, 1790–1913
Open Access (free)

Britain remained a society tainted by class. In 1956, Labour’s conference approved Towards Equality, a document broadly in tune with revisionist thinking and which confirmed the existence of ‘a strong, persistent trend towards economic and social inequality’.1 Even Anthony Crosland, who in the same year predicted that ‘primary poverty’ (i.e. insufficient incomes) would disappear by the mid-1960s, still considered inequality a serious problem that only government action could finally eradicate.2 A key element in Labour’s solution to the persistence of class differences

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1
The American Civil War, 1861–5

long felt. The conflict had immediate consequences for all parts of the Union administration including the foreign service where diplomats and consuls became crucial figures. In Ireland, consuls and their offices became important listening posts for local opinions on the conflict. Temporarily, they also encouraged British neutrality. Ultimately, they acquired new duties providing intelligence and information on any unusual movements on land or at sea, recruited for the Union army under the guise of promoting emigration ensuring that the Confederate government did not

in American government in Ireland, 1790–1913

They consider Labour’s prescriptive notions of how the young should think and act inhibited its efforts. In particular, at the start of the decade the party’s ‘residual puritanism’ is supposed to have prevented it evoking a positive response among purportedly hedonistic proletarians.4 At the end of the 1960s, many believed the government’s political caution had estranged middle-class students.5 This chapter questions the exclusively ‘supply-side’ explanation of Labour’s failure evident in such accounts. In fact, the party’s various attempts to evoke a positive

in The Labour Governments 1964–70 volume 1