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‘the corn chest of Scotland where we poor gentry must send our younger sons as we send our black cattle to the south’. 48 The mentality on display in Calcutta derived from a tradition in modern Scottish culture invented in the aftermath of the Jacobite defeat in 1746 and given practical expression by the Highland regiments which fought in the imperial cause from North America to India that linked Scottish

in Jute and empire

-clerics attributed the landscape to God’s making. James Alexander, a captain in the 42nd Highland Regiment, recorded his sensations on seeing a sunrise at Hooge Fontein on the way to Cape Town from the interior. The grandeur of scenery, its colour and visual impression are ascribed to divine origins with the landscape itself becoming a physical accoutrement of Christian worship as ‘the Great Luminary converted the

in Representing Africa