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Taking the Green Road

that they would nevertheless have been better advised to model themselves after Ismene, Antigone’s sister, who was prepared to submit to the law of the land and to resist the realm of ritual and the Gods.78 But with ‘Antigone in Galway’, the classical tragedy is less clearly in view. Instead, we have an amalgam of contemporary horrors: the discovery of a mass grave and the exposure of yet more cruel and/or criminal treatment by the Irish Catholic church of its laity. Catholics, in this case, are now in the polar opposite condition to that in which O’Brien had placed

in Five Irish women

and unmarried sister Bridget (b. 1879) until his death. The family was closeknit and, unlike most of the Snow’s Yard families, Catholicism and the Church remained important in the Mitchells’ lives. Was it as an Irish Catholic Church? The answer is no. On St Patrick’s Day 1896, celebrations were held at St Patrick’s schoolroom. A lecture was given on ‘The Young Ireland Movement’ that ‘discussed the aims of Young Ireland and showed the applicability of their doctrines to the present day’. It was ‘loudly applauded’.69 Numerous Irish songs and recitations were performed

in Divergent paths

provisions which the Franciscans made for the teaching of humanities, philosophy, and theology to their own novices and perhaps also their patrons’ children in Dublin, Drogheda, Galway, Kilkenny, Kilconnell, Cavan, Cashel, Nenagh, Askeaton, Wexford, Quinn, Enniscorthy, and Multifarnham between the 1620s and 1640s.11 The Jesuits briefly offered something like a university curriculum in Back Lane in Dublin in the late 1620s.12 Rising to the upper levels of the Irish Catholic church was impossible without a thorough education in continental colleges and universities, and the

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race

Rinuccini excommunicated the supporters of the Confederation’s truce with Protestant forces in 1648, he sent O’Ferrall and other key servants to Rome to defend his actions. The Capuchin radical excelled at the Curia, quickly securing an appointment as expert witness to the committee of cardinals which governed the Irish Catholic church, the congregation De Propaganda Fide, and then defeating all attempts to have Rinuccini’s sentence of excommunication overturned. When O’Ferrall fell from favour in 1658, he sought shelter under Rinuccini patronage in Florence where he

in Renaissance humanism and ethnicity before race

demands concerning the conditions of their captivity. These concerned issues such as the prisoners’ right to wear their own clothing and freedom of association. The Irish government viewed these lesser 07_Hume_115-136 116 12/4/10 9:56 Page 116 John Hume demands in humanitarian terms, and felt that they offered room for compromise. But true to her reputation, Thatcher refused to grant any concessions made under duress.4 As the death toll increased, this approach caused disbelief amongst nationalists, with even the head of the Irish Catholic Church, Cardinal Tomás

in John Hume and the revision of Irish nationalism
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court case that mentioned Artane should not be used’. While Quinn now believed that journalists ‘should have tried harder to find out the real truth’, he felt that they ‘would not have been believed and managements and editors would never have held out against a massed attack by the all-​powerful Irish Catholic Church’. There was also, he observed, the issue of ignorance: ‘that the Christian Brothers were indulging their passion for sexual abuse on their captive boys’ was something that would never have occurred to Quinn or his colleagues. But while journalists of the

in The Fourth Estate

dominated public life in this country’ (Dáil 258: 593–4). Another constituency was less concerned with economic sovereignty than with the social and cultural implications. They perceived the European secular/liberal tradition as the very epitome of that which they feared for Ireland. Oliver J. Flanagan, again speaking on the government’s White Paper on EC membership insisted that the Irish Catholic Church was asleep in the face of this European threat and warned that ‘to be brought into line with European legislation, we must introduce divorce’. He went on to argue that

in Global citizen and European Republic
Political reality and religious principle, 1945–56

relation to the health and welfare of Irish mothers. The Irish Catholic Church believed that, as the spiritual leaders, their word should ‘prevail’ in relation to any subject that crossed the line between social and moral welfare. Interestingly, in 1956, when McQuaid was asked by the apostolic nuncio, His Excellency Monsignor Levame, what effect the Health Act had had on the Catholic country, he acknowledged that, as a result of Dr Ryan’s concessions, ‘the crookedness of the measure was made sufficiently straight to avoid further condemnation’.187 McQuaid did not

in Mother and child

hierarchy the descent into violence was a reminder of the anti-clericalism of the original French Revolution and the violence of the 1798 uprising. The events of the early summer of 1848 confirmed the Irish Catholic Church in Ireland in their opposition to an uprising. The precautions being made by the British government in the previous three months now found an important ally in the shape of the Catholic Church. 3313 Repeal and Revolution.qxd:Between Growth&Security.qxd ‘The springtime of the peoples’? 21/4/09 10:07 Page 179 179 Notes 1 Report of John Balfe, March

in Repeal and revolution

a world remained; thus, the need for women to commit themselves to zeal for the Virgin only intensified. Scholars including Andrea Ebel Brożyna, Gerardine Meaney, and Catherine Innes have argued that the Virgin celebrated by the modern Irish Catholic Church was fundamentally, and deliberately, passive. ‘Paintings and statues of Mary popular in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Ireland’, writes Brożyna, tend to be very different from Renaissance depictions of robust Madonnas, sometimes seen suckling the infant Jesus. She is most frequently portrayed as fully

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950