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Helen Cooper

fantasy stone dead. The idea that a romance hero might be chaast is another element in the parody, though probably for rather different reasons for modern and medieval audiences: heroism now is more often associated with being highly sexed, especially now that chastity is often misunderstood as meaning celibacy or virginity. At the very least, chastity is not a masculine attribute that any modern writer is likely to pick out for celebration. Even for Middle English writers, who as a group are much more likely to note their heroes’ sexual restraint, there is some cross

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
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The home life of information
Glenn Burger and Rory Critten

opportunities have been laid open for literary and cultural studies to address the multiple roles of the 6 6 Glenn D. Burger and Rory G. Critten household and its social implication. Middle English romance has proved a particularly rich site for investigating what D. Vance Smith has so suggestively termed ‘the Middle English household imaginary’.11 Smith’s work on the deeply rooted concern with assets management that characterises this genre draws on developments in romance studies, which have for some time been engaged in exploring the productive intersections of class

in Household knowledges in late-medieval England and France
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The Scottish Legendary and narrative art
Eva von Contzen

Early Scots.10 The poet of the Scottish Legendary, however, refers to his language as ‘ynglis townge’ (XVIII, 1471), as was general practice in the later Middle Ages.11 What today is called Early and Middle Scots was in medieval times little different from the northern varieties of Middle English as regards both grammar and vocabulary, although it would be an oversimplification to maintain that that there were Introduction 3 no differences at all. Despite the political boundary the linguistic boundaries were clearly overarching. The identification of the dialect

in The Scottish Legendary
Shayne Aaron Legassie

–9) Guy’s rejection of rich clothing in favour of his poor pilgrim’s weeds, armour and sustenance is a sign of his distance from courtly priorities; even though his acts of piety and atonement take place at royal courts, the romance is careful to keep Guy disentangled from the vain ambitions of the courtier. Unencumbered by courtly vanity, the pilgrim knight is called on to save the court from itself. The Stanzaic Guy of Warwick is one of many Middle English romances in which the knightly protagonist takes to the pilgrimage road. Collectively, these pilgrim romances

in Roadworks
Ruth Evans

-century Old French (OF) narrative poetry in couplets, in the twelfth-century Middle High German (MHG) romances of Gottfried von Strassburg and Hartmann von Aue, and in Pfaffe Lamprecht’s Early MHG Alexander-romance, the Alexanderlied (c.1130).2 The practice is likewise found in Middle English romances in couplets, such as Richard Coeur de Lion (c.1300), in Anglo-French narrative poetry and chronicles, such as Geoffrei Gaimar’s Estoire des Engleis (c.1136–50) and Robert Wace’s Roman de Brut (1155), in Middle Dutch chansons de geste, and, less frequently, in medieval

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
Megan Cavell and Jennifer Neville

a conversation. Note 1 Jonathan Wilcox, ‘“Tell Me What I Am”: The Old English Riddles’, in Readings in Medieval Texts: Interpreting Old and Middle English Literature , ed. David Johnson and Elaine Treharne (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 46–59, at p. 58.

in Riddles at work in the early medieval tradition
Ad Putter

discussion of medieval popular literature, Rosemary Woolf justly described this as ‘a crude piece of work compared with the French and German analogues’.5 Much the same could be (and has been) said for other Middle English romances based on French originals (King Horn, Sir Tristrem, for example), for comparisons tend MUP_McDonald_09_Ch8 172 11/18/03, 17:05 Sir Percyvell of Gales 173 to show that the French romances are subtler and more sophisticated. Fortunately, it is not always conscious artistry that attracts us in literature, and the most obvious way of

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Alcuin Blamires

2 The twin demons of aristocratic society in Sir Gowther Alcuin Blamires Sir Gowther is a 700-line narrative probably originating (in its Middle English form) about 1400 in the North Midlands. It is extant in two mildly divergent manuscript texts, which will here be referred to as the ‘Advocates’ and ‘Royal’ versions.1 Sir Gowther is conspicuous for that surface crankiness and drastic speed which are often found in medieval English verse romances and which readily provoke a modern reader’s suspicion that no very challenging contact with medieval society is being

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
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Jill Fitzgerald

. Notes 1 That tradition persisted in Middle English literature. Examples are inventoried by James Morey, Book and Verse: A Guide to Middle English Biblical Literature (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2000), see “Angel(s), fall of”, p. 396. 2 Carmen de uirginitate , pp. 316–17; trans. Lapidge and Rosier, Aldhelm: The Poetic Works , p. 163. 3 Ibid., p. 457; trans. Lapidge and Rosier, p. 67. 4 Ancrene Wisse: A Corrected Edition of the Text in

in Rebel angels
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Immigrant England
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

fourteenth century, Middle English usage. 28 In formal terms, an alien was understood as someone who owed no direct allegiance to the sovereign power, the king, and was thus separated off from his direct subjects. It is important to note, however, that ‘alien’ was just as applicable to visitors as it was to permanent settlers: in general, the law of alienage that emerged from the thirteenth century made no formal distinction between such sub-categories. 29 Consequently, while all immigrants were aliens, not all aliens were immigrants. The terms

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550