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Scholarly practices of religious Franks in the margin unveiled
Mariken Teeuwen

in Latin and in Middle English. For the Carolingian period, however, his observations are equally true. The margin was a space in which authorities were given their authorial weight, by explaining them and elaborating upon their arguments. But it was also a space where multiple authorities were gathered on a certain subject, which caused an open display of their oppositions, 36 C. Baswell, ‘Talking back to the text: marginal voices in medieval secular literature’, in C. Morse, P. Doob and M. Woods (eds), The Uses of Manuscripts in Literary Studies: Essays in

in Religious Franks
S. H. Rigby

Chaucer’s ‘novelistic’ qualities (in Bakhtinian terms) which make his work seem so ‘startlingly modern and accessible’ compared with other, more monologic Middle English texts which now seem ‘either quaint or tedious’. 13 Nevertheless, a number of critics have attempted to present Chaucer in terms which make his social outlook rather closer in spirit to that of the monologic Gower than many modern

in Chaucer in context
R. N. Swanson

. Fletcher, ‘John Mirk and the Lollards’, Medium Ævum , LVI, 1987 , pp. 217–24. 3 S. Powell, ed., The Advent and Nativity Sermons from a Fifteenth-Century Revision of John Mirk’s Festial , Middle English Texts, XIII, Heidelberg, 1981 , pp. 7–39; A. J. Fletcher, ‘Unnoticed sermons

in Catholic England
Preventative medicine
Louise Hill Curth

differences between individuals, variations in their complexions during the ageing process, and the effects that they would have on health regimens.14 The earliest European manuals on health regimen, or a ‘salutis regimen’ began to appear in the twelfth century.15 These were vernacular works translated from the Latin into either Middle English or Anglo-Norman. Not surprisingly, their content varied according to the particular interests of the translator, and even of the scribe responsible for a certain edition.16 The text that set the standard for the following centuries

in English almanacs, astrology and popular medicine: 1550–1700
Almanacs and medicine for animals
Louise Hill Curth

property) which evolved into the Middle English and Old Northern French ‘catel’.36 In the early modern period, this was a term that was freely applied to most working animals.37 Dogs were one of the few exceptions 210 Almanacs and medicine for animals (regardless of the type of jobs that they carried out), the others included pets, such as singing birds. Working animals were generally further delineated into categories of ‘greater’ or ‘lesser’ cattle. The first type often included ‘the horse, ox, cow, &c’. The latter referred to ‘lesser sort of Beastes, as Sheepe

in English almanacs, astrology and popular medicine: 1550–1700
Maria Pia Di Bella

the poisoner Giovanna Bonanno, executed in Palermo 30 July 1789. 12 The word ‘patient’ comes from the Middle English pacient, from Anglo-French, from Latin patient, patiens, from present participle of pati to suffer; perhaps akin to Greek pēma suffering. First known use: fourteenth century. Its synonyms are: forbearing, long-suffering, stoic (or stoical), tolerant, uncomplaining (Merriam-Webster,, 27 December 2014). 13 Di Bella, La Pura verità, pp. 74–9. 14 Glen W. Bowersock, Martyrdom and Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995

in The hurt(ful) body
Abstract only
Matthew Kempshall

: Mentalités, Idéologies, Intertextualités (Groningen, 1995), pp. 321–30; cf. J.A.W. Bennett, ‘History in Verse’, in J.A.W. Bennett, Middle English Literature (Oxford, 1986), ch. 4; J.J. Duggan, ‘Medieval Epic as Popular Historiography – Appropriation of Historical Knowledge in the Vernacular Epic’, in H.U. Gumbrecht, U. Link-Heer, P.-M. Spangenberg, et al. (eds), La Littérature Historiographique des Origines à 1500: Grundriss der Romanischen Literaturen des Mittelalters (Heidelberg, 1987), vol. XI, pp. 285–311; P. Zumthor, Essai de Poétique Médiévale (Paris, 1972), trans. P

in Rhetoric and the writing of history, 400 –1500
Anthony Musson and Edward Powell

The audience of the tale may have relished the brutality of the passage (even if it made some officials slightly uncomfortable), though they would have noted how the hero is reconciled to the authority of the king and comes to be an accepted part of the legal establishment. 18 Middle English Verse Romances , ed. D. B. Sands (Exeter, University of Exeter Press, 1986

in Crime, Law and Society in the Later Middle Ages
Abstract only
David Jones

in Medieval Religious Cultures (New York and Budapest, 2009 ). 70 S. Wenzel, Verses in Sermons: Fasciculus Morum and its Middle English Poems (Cambridge MA, 1978), 45. 71 Bremond et al., L’Exemplum , 61

in Friars’ Tales
Abstract only
Problems of definition and historiography
Irina Metzler

. Overview and structure of the book The following chapter considers the semantics of ID by looking at the words and labels used across time and place for conditions that might be subsumed by the umbrella-term ‘intellectual disability’ in modern Western society. Lexemes from a range of languages are analysed, including the Semitic language family (Hebrew and Arabic), with Indo-European comparisons by way of trying to get at the linguistic roots of rationality and intellect, and a closer examination of ancient Greek and Latin, Old and Middle

in Fools and idiots?