Scholarly practices of religious Franks in the margin unveiled
and in MiddleEnglish. For the Carolingian period, however, his observations are equally true. The margin was a space in which authorities were
given their authorial weight, by explaining them and elaborating upon their
arguments. But it was also a space where multiple authorities were gathered on a certain subject, which caused an open display of their oppositions,
36 C. Baswell, ‘Talking back to the text: marginal voices in medieval secular literature’, in C. Morse, P. Doob and M. Woods (eds), The Uses of Manuscripts in Literary
Studies: Essays in
Chaucer’s ‘novelistic’ qualities (in
Bakhtinian terms) which make his work seem so ‘startlingly modern
and accessible’ compared with other, more monologic MiddleEnglish
texts which now seem ‘either quaint or tedious’. 13 Nevertheless, a number
of critics have attempted to present Chaucer in terms which make his
social outlook rather closer in spirit to that of the monologic Gower
than many modern
Fletcher, ‘John Mirk and the Lollards’, Medium Ævum , LVI, 1987 , pp. 217–24.
S. Powell, ed., The Advent and Nativity Sermons from a
Fifteenth-Century Revision of John Mirk’s
Festial , MiddleEnglish Texts, XIII, Heidelberg,
1981 , pp. 7–39; A. J.
Fletcher, ‘Unnoticed sermons
differences between individuals, variations in
their complexions during the ageing process, and the effects that they would
have on health regimens.14
The earliest European manuals on health regimen, or a ‘salutis regimen’
began to appear in the twelfth century.15 These were vernacular works translated from the Latin into either MiddleEnglish or Anglo-Norman. Not surprisingly, their content varied according to the particular interests of the
translator, and even of the scribe responsible for a certain edition.16 The text
that set the standard for the following centuries
property) which evolved into the MiddleEnglish and Old
Northern French ‘catel’.36 In the early modern period, this was a term that was
freely applied to most working animals.37 Dogs were one of the few exceptions
Almanacs and medicine for animals
(regardless of the type of jobs that they carried out), the others included pets,
such as singing birds. Working animals were generally further delineated into
categories of ‘greater’ or ‘lesser’ cattle. The first type often included ‘the horse,
ox, cow, &c’. The latter referred to ‘lesser sort of Beastes, as Sheepe
the poisoner Giovanna Bonanno, executed in Palermo 30 July 1789.
12 The word ‘patient’ comes from the MiddleEnglish pacient, from Anglo-French,
from Latin patient, patiens, from present participle of pati to suffer; perhaps
akin to Greek pēma suffering.
First known use: fourteenth century. Its synonyms are: forbearing, long-suffering, stoic (or stoical), tolerant, uncomplaining (Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com, 27 December 2014).
13 Di Bella, La Pura verità, pp. 74–9.
14 Glen W. Bowersock, Martyrdom and Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University
: Mentalités, Idéologies, Intertextualités
(Groningen, 1995), pp. 321–30; cf. J.A.W. Bennett, ‘History in Verse’, in J.A.W.
Bennett, MiddleEnglish Literature (Oxford, 1986), ch. 4; J.J. Duggan, ‘Medieval
Epic as Popular Historiography – Appropriation of Historical Knowledge in the
Vernacular Epic’, in H.U. Gumbrecht, U. Link-Heer, P.-M. Spangenberg, et al.
(eds), La Littérature Historiographique des Origines à 1500: Grundriss der Romanischen
Literaturen des Mittelalters (Heidelberg, 1987), vol. XI, pp. 285–311; P. Zumthor,
Essai de Poétique Médiévale (Paris, 1972), trans. P
The audience of the tale may have relished the brutality of the passage
it made some officials slightly uncomfortable), though they would have
noted how the hero is reconciled to the authority of the king and comes
to be an accepted part of the legal establishment. 18
Romances , ed. D. B. Sands (Exeter, University of Exeter Press,
in Medieval Religious Cultures (New York and
Budapest, 2009 ).
S. Wenzel, Verses in Sermons: Fasciculus
Morum and its MiddleEnglish Poems (Cambridge MA, 1978),
Bremond et al., L’Exemplum ,
Overview and structure of the book
The following chapter considers the semantics of ID by looking at the words and labels used across time and place for conditions that might be subsumed by the umbrella-term ‘intellectual disability’ in modern Western society. Lexemes from a range of languages are analysed, including the Semitic language family (Hebrew and Arabic), with Indo-European comparisons by way of trying to get at the linguistic roots of rationality and intellect, and a closer examination of ancient Greek and Latin, Old and Middle