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The penalties and paradoxes of unmanliness

2 Appetites, passions, and disgust: the penalties and paradoxes of unmanliness Introduction Unmanliness was emblazoned on emotionalised bodies, written onto illformed, unappealing forms and faces, and deployed through disgust, the very antitheses of desire. This too had physiognomic roots and moral associations. Johann Caspar Lavater, for example, explained: ‘the morally best, the most beautiful. The morally worst, the most deformed.’1 Eighteenth-century British moral philosophers similarly drew analogies between the corporeal and the moral, applying a

in Manliness in Britain, 1760–1900
Reason and relation in the work cure

Retreat Near York, published June 1813, in which it is declared that of all methods to coax the melancholic patient back to reality and reason, work was to be regarded both the most effective and efficacious. As is well known in the history of psychiatry, the Description of the Retreat: An Institution Near York for Insane Persons of the Society of Friends, is the detailed and often lively account of the enigmatic Quaker Retreat in North Yorkshire, England, at which moral treatment – and thus work therapy by association – is widely credited to have had its English

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Marriage, birth control and sexual morality

a radical re-imagining of sexual norms and conduct. The Freethought renunciation of Christianity necessarily entailed a rejection of the moral authority of the Church, particularly its role in legitimising sexual relations. Secularists were therefore required to find a new basis for morality, and questions of sex were at the centre of this project to establish new ethical criteria. In some cases Secularists’ rejection of

in Infidel feminism
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also packaged up with many other developments under the term ‘Renaissance’. 4 But whether one describes it as a legal renaissance, or as a process of the professionalisation and systematisation of law, the law changed. In England, legal changes created the conditions and space for a ‘crisis’ of a conceptual and ethical kind: uncertainty regarding the moral duties associated with the office of the judge, and, most particularly, how a judge ought to exercise mercy in his judgments. That question became a matter of particular political and ‘public’ concern for English

in Justice and mercy
Early medical writing on drink

ground for some of the most critical aspects of the nineteenth-century drink question: debates over the treatment of habitual drunkards, their moral responsibility, and the role of the State in protecting them from their own destructive desires. Related to the burgeoning medical discourse on drink were long-running philosophical disputes over the nature of consciousness. These fuelled heated speculation over what drunkenness told us about the 59 chap5.indd 59 22/06/2009 10:53:38 The politics of alcohol r­ elationship between mind and body, and what the moral

in The politics of alcohol
Eugenics and birth control in Johannesburg, 1930-40

’. Eugenics was the science and social movement dedicated to improv ing physical, mental or moral qualities in human populations. Widely prevalent in industrialising countries during the first third of the twentieth century, it was an expression of the biological worldview of modern society. 7 Eugenics movements took root in many different parts of the world and under varying political systems. They can

in Science and society in southern Africa

of the ancient republican tradition – as represented in the ideal forms of Montesquieu, Rousseau and Mably – but he was far more sympathetic to the more moderate (and pragmatic) republicanism of the commonwealthmen. Indeed, as will be demonstrated in this chapter, d’Holbach not only made use of their religious arguments, but also shared some of their moral and political ideas. D’Holbach’s commonwealth connections The catalogue listing the books that were held in d’Holbach’s library on his death reveals that he owned a number of English republican works himself

in The English republican tradition and eighteenth-century France
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The politics of prohibition

9 A monstrous theory: the politics of prohibition The power to apply correction by legislative means, cannot be doubted, without supposing the intelligent, the just and the moral portion of the community unable to control the excesses of the ignorant and disorderly, which would be to declare our incapacity to maintain the first principles of Government by ensuring the public safety. (Select Committee of Inquiry into Drunkenness, 1834) The Traffic is corrupt at the core … its ‘good’ is only the good of limited mischief. (Frederic Lees) The 1830 Beer Act triggered

in The politics of alcohol
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between 1922 and 1960, but it was a period of vital evolution which helped to redefine and redirect the future of Irish motherhood. While Irish society persisted in maintaining the ambiguities inherent in all cultures – where ideals and reality compete for space in legislation and social policy – there was a perceptible shift during this period from moral control to secular entitlement. Pregnancy is biologically determined and motherhood is culturally defined, and during the first forty years of independence increased biological knowledge and the changing cultural

in Mother and child
Pacifist feminism in Britain, 1870–1902

This book explores the pervasive influence of pacifism on Victorian feminism. It provides an account of Victorian women who campaigned for peace, and of the many feminists who incorporated pacifist ideas into their writing on women and gender. The book explores feminists' ideas about the role of women within the empire, their eligibility for citizenship, and their ability to act as moral guardians in public life. It shows that such ideas made use – in varying ways – of gendered understandings of the role of force and the relevance of arbitration and other pacifist strategies. The book examines the work of a wide range of individuals and organisations, from well-known feminists such as Lydia Becker, Josephine Butler and Millicent Garrett Fawcett to lesser-known figures such as the Quaker pacifists Ellen Robinson and Priscilla Peckover.