to be herself. Yet, precisely by standing outside of legal
strictures, Elizabeth seems to have opened the opportunity for
others to do the same. Franco Moretti makes an analogous argument
with respect to Renaissance tragedy: ‘Tragedy disentitled the
absolute monarch to all ethical and rational legitimation. Having
deconstructed the king, tragedy made it possible to decapitate
‘secular corrective’ (p. 109) to the transcendent values of hagiography.
36 M. M. Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, ed.
Michael Holquist, trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist
(Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981), p. 120.
37 Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination, p. 120.
38 Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, ‘The roads of the novel’, in Franco Moretti
(ed.), The Novel, 2 vols (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006),
vol. 2, pp. 611–46 (p. 614).
39 Sir Eglamour of Artois, in Harriet Hudson (ed.), Four Middle English
Romances: Sir Isumbras, Octavian, Sir
McKenzie (eds), The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, vol. 4, 1557–1695
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 779–84. Hereafter CHBB.
22 F. Moretti, Distant Reading (London: Verso, 2013).
23 J. McElligott, Royalism, Print, and Censorship in Revolutionary England (Woodbridge:
Boydell Press, 2007).
24 Of course, this is not the final word on the matter, as the number of publications in
1642 might have been higher still if Parliament had not tried to control the press.
25 The ESTC totals include serials and periodicals, which is one reason why the
far from the poorest – though, as Anna Minton shows in Big Capital
(2017), this distance has been growing in the twenty-first century – and
consequently London has escaped the kinds of absolute class and racial
ghettoisation that is characteristic of many American cities (Moretti
1998; Goldberg 2006).
With late twentieth-century globalisation, London became defined
as a ‘global city’ (Sassen 2001), linked through international flows of
capital and financial services and information to other nodes – New
York, Tokyo – of an emergent global information network, a
et Martin, Les Egarés) and especially Michèle Moretti,
whose collaboration with Téchiné goes as far back as Marc’O’s theatre
group in the 1960s (Paulina s’en va, Souvenirs d’en France, Rendez-vous,
J’embrasse pas, Ma Saison préférée, Les Roseaux sauvages).
Téchiné always writes his own screenplays, but always in collaboration with at least one other. He has worked regularly with two former
Cahiers critics who are now ﬁlm directors: Pascal Bonitzer (Les Sœurs
Brontë, Le Lieu du crime, Les Innocents, Ma Saison préférée, Les Temps
qui changent), who has also done
Daily Worker, 2 June 1930, p. 4.
10 Workers’ Weekly, 20 June 1924, p. 6.
11 Workers’ Weekly, 14 December 1923, p. 2.
12 The Communist, 27 January 1923, p. 8.
13 Workers’ Weekly, 25 July 1924, p. 2. See also, Workers’ Weekly, 11 August 1923, p. 2.
14 Karl Marx, Wage Labour and Capital, in Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Selected Works in One
Volume (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1968), p. 93.
15 Karl Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Volume 1 (Harmondsworth: Penguin,
1976), p. 342.
16 Ibid., p.367.
17 Franco Moretti, Signs Taken For Wonders: Essays in the
equality of the sexes and mature love are possible. The
archetypal Cinderella plot, which jane’s story has also been
read as (e.g., Moretti 1987 , 185–9), is effectively discarded by gothic
excess and this version of escape. Her female success story relies
on a strong vision of gender equality, which ultimately requires the
destruction of Thornfield, Rochester’s dependency and
, and between film-making and resistance.
Although reference will be made throughout this study to the various scholarly and popular critical sources that discuss Garrel’s work, it is instructive at this point to review some of the key publications that have engaged with specific films, periods or tendencies within Garrel’s career. In comparison with other film-makers of a similar generation and output (for example, Chantal Akerman, Wim Wenders or Nanni Moretti), writing on Garrel’s cinema remains limited and fragmentary. Critical responses to
supernatural ability to transmute
base metal into gold. 88
The legend provided anti-Semites with a convenient analogy for how they
saw Jews manipulating the wealth of the world ( Figure
8 ). In monetary terms, the threat of Dracula reverts back to
‘the tyranny of feudal monopoly’, which, as Franco Moretti
explains, threatens the circulation of capital in a free British
homegrown heroes.61 Recall the scene from Nanni
Moretti’s film Aprile (1998): when Silvio Berlusconi wins the election, the 25
April memorial celebrations suddenly gain real relevance. The nation, as Emilio
Gentile reminds us in La grande Italia, only came back into view in the mid-
1990s.62 Berlusconi’s ascent to power in 1994 and the subsequent renewed interest
in Fascist strategies for suppressing dissent –and their contemporary correlatives –
changed the national discourse about internal exile yet again, offering a new
declension of the legacy of Fascism and an