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creating higher revenue (more profit) as the desired outcome. From every other conceivable perspective, it is inefficient.’25 Additionally, and again contrary to the dominant perspective, comparing the efficiency of public and private enterprises is actually quite difficult. ‘In comparing SOEs to privately owned firms,’ Megginson and Netter wrote, ‘it is difficult, if not impossible, to determine the appropriate set of comparison firms or benchmarks.’26 Furthermore, for a variety of reasons, including natural monopolies and suppression of competition, there are not

in Our common wealth
Under-investment and confusion marketing

out-­sourcing. The inflection of privatisation towards liberalisation with regulation by agencies was made by a small cadre of economists, including Michael Beesley, Stephen Littlechild and John Vickers, who remained centrally involved for two decades in debates around what to do 32   The end of the experiment? with competition in private utilities. As Vickers and Yarrow (1988) argued, privatised utilities could be made safe if regulators promoted competition in (or for) the market, or simulated competition through regulatory devices like price caps. Thus, British

in The end of the experiment?

3 The media and political change This chapter assesses three broad perspectives on how the Irish media has covered political change in Ireland over almost fifty years. The first, which we call ‘hypercritical infotainment’, emphasises the media as a collective agent of change. According to this approach, the media shifts from passive reporting of politics to framing it as a political competition and adopting a negative tone towards politics. This, in turn, imposes a media logic on politicians, who become more interested in spin and soundbites than policymaking

in Resilient reporting
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, and the USA to do so. This is a fascinating account of how musicians have constantly sought to build organisations that represent their interests, often seeking to limit competition by trying to ensure that musical employment is open only to members – and that membership is strictly controlled. Attali (1985) provides a compelling account of how musicians’ working lives were transformed by the onset of industrial capitalism, while Kraft (1996) provides an excellent study of US musicians’ early encounters with the recording industry and Stahl (2013) offers a similarly

in Players’ work time
Competition and cooperation?

14 Reichenau and its amici viventes: ­competition and cooperation? Régine Le Jan In the ninth century religious and political domains were closely intertwined:  empire was identified with ecclesia and the royal palace with the sacrum palatium.1 As miles Christi, the emperor, in close cooperation with the bishops, was in charge of the Church – i.e. of Christian society and its salvation – while Carolingian elites, deeply filled by Christian values, were anxious about salvation. Church reform had been a constant preoccupation of Carolingian rulers since at least

in Religious Franks

The church as sacred space places the reader at the heart of medieval religious life, standing inside the church with the medieval laity in order to ask what the church meant to them and why. It examines the church as a building, idea, and community, and explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was crucial to its place at the centre of lay devotion and parish life. At a time when the parish church was facing competition for lay attention, and dissenting movements such as Lollardy were challenging the relevance of the material church, the book examines what was at stake in discussions of sanctity and its manifestations. Exploring a range of Middle English literature alongside liturgy, architecture, and material culture, the book explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was constructed and maintained for the edification of the laity. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary theoretical approaches, the book offers a reading of the church as continually produced and negotiated by the rituals, performances, and practices of its lay communities, who were constantly being asked to attend to its material form, visual decorations, and significance. The meaning of the church was a dominant question in late-medieval religious culture and this book provides an invaluable context for students and academics working on lay religious experience and canonical Middle English texts.

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A new pedagogy for a new politics

specific social and political dynamics. It led them to rethink the curricular emphases and the institutional infrastructure of the Ancien Régime schools, but also to appropriate and refashion educational tools such as catechisms, festivals, morality tales, theatrical productions, academic prizes, student competitions, songs, and more.28 Generally associated with the cultural politics of the Convention and of the Year II, the integration of scholarly and civic education was part of the effort to “reconcil[e] civic virtue and individual effort” during the first years of

in In pursuit of politics
Open Access (free)

capitalism. The contributions to this volume explore this interface in a number of ways. The purpose of this Introduction is to place these contributions in the wider context and briefly to outline the content of the various chapters. We consider the best place to start to be with the analysis of the nature of markets by drawing a distinction between the general market system and particular markets. This inevitably leads us to a discussion of the relation between markets and competition. The central presence of markets in the operation of capitalism should require no

in Market relations and the competitive process
The case of Universal Health Insurance – by competition

9 Cliona Loughnane Governing healthcare: the case of Universal Health Insurance – by competition Introduction One of the defining features of the Irish health system, since the establishment of Voluntary Health Insurance (VHI) in the 1950s, has been a heavy reliance by those who can afford it on private health insurance. Thus the Irish health system, which is three quarters funded by taxation (Wren, Connolly and Cunningham, 2015), is a strange mix of a national health system with high levels of private insurance cover (with up to 50% of the population holding

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
The dance profession and the evolution of style

writers who sought to seize control of popular dance and guide its continued development. Starting in 1920, these aficionados held a series of meetings and purpose-driven dances at which they deliberated over what was being danced in Britain, and how these dances were being executed and taught. They also diversified their activities, growing the number of dance exhibitions and competitions, and producing an extensive dance-themed print culture. This chapter will demonstrate that the results of these processes were two-fold: the professionalisation of ballroom dance and

in Dancing in the English style