Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles

is to avoid causing more than twenty-nine civilian deaths, because, according to its advisors, thirty is the threshold at which negative reports begin to appear in the press ( Weizmann, 2010 ). Another example is modern flamethrowers, which were first used by Germany in 1915 and became widespread thereafter; in the 1970s, they came to symbolise the brutality of the Vietnam War. The famous photograph of the burned little girl fleeing a napalm attack aroused general indignation

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

Introduction In 2014, a campaign group posted a video on YouTube called ‘Syrian hero boy’. The clip showed a young boy dramatically running through gunfire to save a girl, and it quickly went viral. The video was viewed more than five million times and republished on the websites of mainstream news outlets around the world, including the Daily Telegraph, Independent , Daily Mail and New York Post . It was also shared by the organisation Syria Campaign, which attached a petition calling on world leaders to stop the conflict. There was just

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector

civilian protection focuses on providing material assistance in such a way as to enable civilians to reduce their exposure to threats, as in the often cited example of providing fuel-efficient stoves to reduce women’s and girls’ exposure to threats of sexual violence while collecting firewood ( Ferris, 2011 : 108; O’Callaghan and Pantuliano, 2007 : 35; Slim and Bonwick, 2005 : 89). Projects focused on income-generating activities may

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local

, almost 1 million people who entirely rely on UNRWA in Gaza and over 50,000 Palestinian refugees from Syria now living precariously in Lebanon and Jordan ( UNRWA, 2018a ). Table 2 #Dignity Is Priceless campaign For 70 years, we stood #ForPalestineRefugees as they endured injustice and suffering. 1.7 million extremely vulnerable refugees rely on regular food and cash assistance. Average of 9 million patient visits to our 150 clinics annually. Half a million girls and boys attend our 700 schools. That’s their rights and dignity. And

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

The gothic has, for two hundred years, played an important role in female culture; and worked early on to feminise established literary forms and has, throughout its history, strongly challenged established notions of femininity. Neo-gothicism reflects the feminine dimensions of the ongoing cultural and literary change: gothic horror addresses 'gendered' problems of everyday life. This book focuses on the narrative and ideological components that shape gothic fictions as feminine forms. It explores the classic texts of two hundred years of gothicism on three levels. The first is their contextualising of the specific cultural-historical situation that they both come from and address. The second is their narrative texture, marked by a complex subjectivity; and third, the inter-textualisation of feminine gothic writing. Alice Munro's Lives of Girls and Women uses gothic contextualising to tell a gothic story of growing up, and Margaret Atwood's Lady Oracle parodically incorporates gothic texture. The gothicism of Aritha van Herk's No Fixed Address relies very much on the Canadian landscape, and points to the intersection of neo-gothicism and Canadian culture. Lynne Tillman's Haunted Houses is a fictional braid of three gothic life stories of girls growing up in contemporary Brooklyn; the 'haunted houses' of the title are their bodies that are not born but becoming women. Dress, a classic feminine gothic sign for both propriety and property, is shown in the postmodern context as thematic enclosure of the body as well as formal enclosure of the story.

Britain 1876–1953

Music played a major role in the life of a global ideological phenomenon like the British Empire. This book demonstrates that music has to be recognised as one of the central characteristics of the cultural imperialism of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It begins with an account of the imperial music of Sir Edward Elgar and Sir Arthur Sullivan and the establishing of an imperial musical idiom. The book discusses the music composed for or utilized by official occasions: coronations, jubilees, exhibitions, tattoos, Armistice Day and Empire Day. Community singing was also introduced at the Aldershot Military Tattoo in 1927, sponsored by the Daily Express. The book examines the imperial content of a range of musical forms: operetta and ballet, films, music hall songs, ballads, hymns and marches. In one of the scenes depicting ballet, Indian dancing girls are ordered to reveal the riches of the land and the Ballet of Jewels. There were two staples of song in the second half of the nineteenth century: the drawing-room ballad and the music-hall song. Sir Henry Coward was Britain's leading chorus-master, and his 1911 musical world tour with Sheffield choir was the high point of his career. The book concludes with a discussion of practitioners of imperial music: the divas Emma Albani, Nellie Melba and Clara Butt, and the baritone Peter Dawson.

Irish Women and the Creation of Modern Catholicism is the only book-length study of lay Catholic women in modern Irish history. Focusing on the pivotal century from 1850 to 1950, it analyses the roles that middle-class, working-class, and rural poor lay women played in the evolution of Irish Catholicism and thus the creation of modern Irish identities. This project demonstrates that in an age of Church growth and renewal stretching from the aftermath of the Great Famine through the early years of the Irish Republic, lay women were essential to all aspects of Catholic devotional life, including both home-based religion and public Catholic rituals. It also reveals that women, by rejecting, negotiating, and reworking Church dictates, complicated Church and clerical authority. Irish Women and the Creation of Modern Catholicism re-evaluates the relationship between the institutional Church, the clergy, and women, positioning lay Catholic women as central actors in the making of modern Ireland. It also contests views that the increasing power of the Catholic Church caused a uniform decline in Irish women’s status after the Great Famine of the 1840s, revealing that middle-class, working-class, and rural poor lay women fought with their priests, dominated household religion, and led parish rituals, thus proving integral to the development of a modern Irish Catholic ethos and culture.

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-century Irish girls. Hyland’s narrative also raises questions about the ways in which girls experienced their Catholic childhoods, a topic understudied in both Irish women’s history and the history of Irish Catholicism. Through an analysis of women’s life-writings, including diaries, oral histories, autobiographies, and memoirs, this chapter explores the realities of growing up Catholic and female from 1850 to 1950, with a particular focus on the first half of the twentieth century. At this catholic girlhoods 59 time, religion served as the major influence in Irish girls

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Moral prevention work with girls

3 ‘Modesty is the sister of virtue’: moral prevention work with girls The old adage that ‘prevention is better than cure’ began to be recognised from the end of the nineteenth century, by those engaged in philanthropic work with women involved in prostitution.1 To try and prevent girls from ‘falling’ became the aim of a variety of informal and voluntary organisations, rather than focusing solely on the reformation of those who had already ‘fallen’.2 This chapter focuses on the organisations and discourses in Northern Ireland concerned with preserving female

in Regulating sexuality
Open Access (free)
Fluidity and reciprocity in the performance of caring in Fevered Sleep’s Men & Girls Dance

Writing about what could be interpreted as a starting point for Men & Girls Dance in the ‘newspaper’ accompanying the production, David Harradine, one of Fevered Sleep’s co-artistic directors, describes a moment at a local village bonfire, where he found himself watching a group of boys ‘chasing each other round in the rain and mud’ (Harradine, quoted in Fevered Sleep, 2017 ). As he stood watching the boys playing, he describes a growing sense of uneasiness as he realised that he too was being observed by the other adults present, who were positioning him as

in Performing care