. Historically, the conceptualisation of
place and movement in the social sciences has been dominated by a dichotomisation between sendentarism and deterritorialisation, i.e. the tendency to
perceive human beings as either static, and dwelling in a specific place, or
as placeless nomads – and to take the locational stability of sendentarism to
be the norm. The mobility turn opposes this dichotomy and testifies to the
ongoing attempt to chart and understand how internationalmigration and
other mobilities – such as tourism and travel mobilities, for example – have
Writing the history of the ‘International’ Health Service
Julian M. Simpson
. Simpson, A. Esmail, V. S. Kalra, S. J. Snow, ‘Writing migrants back
into NHS history: Addressing a “collective amnesia” and its policy implications’, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 103:10 (2010); J. M.
Simpson, ‘Reframing NHS history: Visual sources in a study of UK-based
migrant doctors’, Oral History, 42:2 (2014).
9 OECD, InternationalMigration Outlook 2015 (Paris: OECD Publishing,
2015), p. 111.
10 L. Doyal, G. Hunt, J. Mellor, ‘Your life in their hands: Migrant workers in the National Health Service’, Critical Social Policy, 1 (1981);
L. Ryan, ‘Who
-called ‘political turn’ in contemporary art since the
1990s, it is not surprising that a number of artists have committed themselves
to spotlighting the geopolitical issue of the securitisation of borders and its
recurrent fatal consequences for unwanted immigrants. Thus, the second
part of this chapter focuses on this issue as part of the overall phenomenon
of internationalmigration. It examines how the enforcement of the European
borders surfaces in the artistic-cinematic imaginary in an analysis of Isaac
Julien’s video installation Western Union: Small Boats, and its theme of
these informal personal networks for Irish and
The existence of networks
As seen, contrast between their homeland and new country of settlement was
one of the main aspects of settlement concerning Irish and Scottish migrants.
2 There is a strong international literature focusing on the role of networks in the process
of migration. See Monica Boyd, ‘Family and personal networks in internationalmigration: recent developments and new agendas’, InternationalMigration Review,
23:3 (1989), pp. 638–70; Douglas S. Massey, Joaquín Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali
Agrarian turmoil and the activation of
The road to emigration
The search for the deepest roots of modern internationalmigration leads back
inexorably to late eighteenth-century Europe and, most generically, to the British
Isles. The case depends on the weight and impressions derived from contemporary evidence, but the lines of causation are faint. The beginnings of modern
mobility were essentially rural – the origins are found in country cottages and
villages, and along the very long and tortuous paths which, for a minority, led
and for good.3 The colonies (principally
in New South Wales, Van Diemen’s Land and Moreton Bay) had little to do
with the main currents of internationalmigration or its structural origins. They
were not truly volitional emigrants, any more than slaves, and they were not part
of the generic mechanisms of expatriation.
The convicts were, however, meant to be the foundation of a productive colonisation, a self-supporting society with wider potentiality. The convicts were
selected not so much for their criminality and dispensability, but for their skills
absorbed the outflows, as if debouching from Cornwall. Cornish
emigration was a near-perfect case of global rationalisation in the context of the
laissez-faire world of the Pax Britannica.
Skilled labour always was, and still is, one of the principal driving forces in
internationalmigration. Skill has been a passport to mobility, adventure and
better incomes. Frank Thistlethwaite, father of many of the best organising ideas
regarding the history of mass migration, remarked that ‘Skill acts, as it were, as
a radioactive tracer in the blood stream of
Royal Indonesian visits to the Dutch court in the early twentieth century
–1940’, InternationalMigration Review , 41:2
(2007), 511–536; Susan Legêne, ‘Dwinegeri: Multiculturalism and the
Colonial Past’, in Benjamin Kaplan, Marybeth Carlson and Laura Cruz
(eds), Boundaries and their Meanings in the History of the
Netherlands (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009), pp.
KHA A50 Xxa
: Reflections on the Mechanisms that Cement Their Persistent Poverty.”
Refugee Survey Quarterly 31 (1): 34–53.
Hanafi, S. and T. Long. 2010. “Governance, Governmentalities, and the State of
Exception in the Palestinian Refugee camps of Lebanon.” Journal of Refugee Studies
23 (2): 134–59.
Heater, D. 2004. A Brief History of Citizenship. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
Hourani, G. G. and Sensenig-Dabbous, E. 2012. “Naturalized Citizens: Political
Participation, Voting Behavior, and Impact on Elections in Lebanon (1996–2007).”
Journal of InternationalMigration and
-free mortgage: the bank does not loan money to the buyer, but buys
the property or object from the seller, then re-sells it to the property buyer at a
profit. The latter reimburses the bank in instalments.
More to the point, according to the Global Commission on InternationalMigration, in the year 2000 some 86 million of the world’s migrants were
economically active – over half of all migrants. Those in Europe contributed billions of euros to the economic outputs of their host countries.34 It was found in
Britain that on balance immigration contributes to the state more than