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Joanne Wilson and Lindsay Prior

surprising; previous years (1980 to 1987) had been marred by a prolonged economic recession, which saw living standards plummet, unemployment escalate (employment decreased by nearly 6% and 25% in manufacturing), and mass emigration rise (O’Donnell, 1998). Fearful of national insolvency and of a declining tax base, the document authors deployed an apparently objective and technical narrative of ‘efficiency’ to justify and legitimise real cuts in healthcare expenditure. They argued that the state was spending too much, given that more affluent countries were spending less

in Reframing health and health policy in Ireland
The curiosity of the Bulgarian case
Elena Simeonova

issue foreign passports to the Bulgarian Turks. On 29 May 1989, Zhivkov delivered a speech live on national television and radio, in which he underlined the Bulgarian origins of the Turks, but also gave them the right ‘to choose their motherland and to leave Bulgaria temporarily or permanently’. 5 This concession was a signal for the mass emigration of around 300,000 Bulgarian Turks – the so-called ‘big excursion’ – in the summer of 1989. The authorities were caught off-guard by the huge scale of the emigration and the country faced major problems with the harvest and

in The 1989 Revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe
Irish women in the medical profession in Britain during World War Two
Jennifer Redmond

mention the gender disparity in wages in Ireland. Female rates of pay in Ireland throughout the 1940s up to the 1960s were between 53–57 per cent of those of men.25 The propensity for Irish people to migrate from rural to urban locations also impacted on wage rates; as Hatton and Williamson have posited, this generally results in a doubling of wages.26 Women entering nursing in Britain were thereby responding to ‘relative wage signals’, and the ‘large relative wage gap between Ireland and the countries which received Irish immigrants’ that led to mass emigration from

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
Ben Tonra

sector remained overwhelmingly dependent upon the British market and its cheap food policy. In the face of these limitations, Irish fiscal and monetary policy pursued an orthodox conservative turn that prioritised balanced budgets. Political pressures began to grow to address the obvious shortcomings in economic policy and the implications of mass emigration on Irish society and local communities. While access to the emigrant boat relieved the political pressures that might otherwise have existed in the face of mass unemployment at home, there was a clear understanding

in Global citizen and European Republic
Ben Tonra

to pay for additional social welfare costs (Dornbusch 1989). In sum, by the early to mid-1980s the Irish economy was stagnating, unemployment was at a record 18 per cent, the debt to GDP ratio was rising rapidly and mass emigration had re-emerged at a rate of 1.4 per cent of population per year. Substantial EU funding is seen as having had a significant impact in mitigating the worst of this economic slump and later in pump-priming the Irish economy for its subsequent boom – with transfers totalling 7 per cent of GNP at their height and adding an estimated

in Global citizen and European Republic
Abstract only
Eric Richards

trees. Hebridean parallels The emigration records of the Isle of Man and Guernsey display great contrasts in their trajectories, though the final shape was rather similar. Both islands, in Islands of exit 33 contexts of unprecedented population growth, lost people to overseas destinations; in both islands the old rural sector declined in proportional terms. The island story is far from unambiguous in its meanings and there were myriad other island stories within the Age of Emigration, each throwing varying light on the deep origins of mass emigration from the

in The genesis of international mass migration
Eric Richards

in North America’.29 Since the costs of emigration were normally beyond the resources of the poor, the Vestry instituted a scheme to assist those willing to emigrate. Several other parishes adopted the same system in the 1830s and facilitated a minor flow in the emerging phase of mass emigration. Emigration agents, in quick response, were soon offering their services. The Dorking scheme in 1832 was larger than most and was explicitly designed to reduce the burden on the parish rates. There was little doubt about the demand for labour in Canada – for instance in

in The genesis of international mass migration
The legacy of 1848
Christine Kinealy

. The mass emigration that resulted from the Famine not only gave Irish nationalism an international base of support, but it provided a further compelling example of British misrule. In 1848, many Fenians looked upon France and America as their natural allies, believing that external aid was necessary to achieve inde- 3313 Repeal and Revolution.qxd:Between Growth&Security.qxd ‘Dreams and delusions’ 21/4/09 10:07 Page 285 285 pendence.42 For some of the Fenian leadership, however, the failure of the 1848 rising had provided a number of lessons. One was that

in Repeal and revolution
Karlis Bukovskis and Ilvija Bruge

resulted in a rather quick macroeconomic recovery (for more discussion see Aslund, 2010 ; Aslund & Dombrovskis, 2011 ; Eihmanis, 2018 ), but the severe cuts in government budget spending of almost 14% naturally had a significant impact on the welfare of the general society. Latvian society came out of the financial crisis with the Gini coefficient at 37% in 2011 (Hansen, 2011 ), with unemployment only in 2015 falling below 10% (Central Statistical Bureau, 2016a ), with continued mass emigration for job opportunities in Ireland, the United Kingdom

in The European left and the financial crisis
Kieran Allen

rate of unemployment was 6.4 percent – an increase on the previous year because it reflected some of the initial downturn in construction. Five years later in 2013, the rate was 12.8 percent but this figure disguised even more worrying trends. First, the level of unemployment has broadly remained at this level despite the return of mass emigration. The labour force has shrunk from 2,278,300 to 2,159,100 – a decline of 119,200. This is all the more surprising as the Celtic Tiger was supposed to have a demographic advantage. Ireland’s combination of a youthful

in Ireland under austerity