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by the Ottomans, creating a new vilayet of Kosovo.1 The general deterioration in religious relations was heightened by mass expulsions in ‘Muslim lands taken over by Serbia, Bulgaria and Montenegro in 1877–8’.2 These mass migrations from parts of Serbia were coupled with the movement of refugees into and the emigration of Serbs out of Kosovo. At the international level, the influence of the Ottoman Turks continued to decline, while new Slav nationalist movements sprung up in the South Balkans, producing a general sense of unease in the region. In short, the

in Contemporary violence

from being destroyed, depended on how individual commanders interpreted the orders they received.3 It is worth adding that the delayed revocation of v 66 v Refugees from Polish territories in Russia some orders by the Russian High Command may have been an attempt to create the impression that its ‘orders were misunderstood and misapplied by the authorities here [i.e. in the Kingdom of Poland]’.4 Exodus Capturing the onset of this mass migration of civilians into the interior of Russia is extremely difficult, as eye-witness accounts and memoirs are not numerous. The

in Europe on the move

Highlands and in Australia, emigrant letters, and case studies in what he called ‘precipitate mass migration’. He was also able to develop his major new study entitled ‘The Origins of Modern Migration’. At the end of his visit, he did some more research in the Stafford Record Office. Eric is often to be found ‘on the wing’ to his many international academic assignments, so it is

in Imperial expectations and realities

followed throughout the Commonwealth. While the British Nationality Act did facilitate large-scale colonial emigration to Britain, the Act in fact acknowledged the existence of multiple citizenships within the Commonwealth as opposed to creating a single Commonwealth (imperial) citizenship. The mass migration to Britain of non-white subjects, a process

in Imperial citizenship

explain why clearance was not always followed by mass migration from the Highland region itself because often evicted families were able to scrape an uncertain existence in overcrowded townships and slum villages by relying on seasonal work elsewhere. Both agriculture and industry in the south had an even greater need for temporary labour in the nineteenth century than even before. Industrialisation had produced a much more complex labour market with new occupations, changes in traditional jobs and growing specialisation of functions. Technology was advancing but most

in Clanship to crofters’ war
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the lifeblood not just of Australia, but of colonies in general. Ships were sources of labour, news, goods and food, ideas and government orders, but they also induced great anxiety. Most importantly, voyages were not separate from the social, political, cultural, and environmental contexts through which they began, passed, and ended. Through the experiences of people who travelled, I see voyages as assemblages: medical concerns, military priorities, social hierarchy, penal reform, mass migration, colonial politics, and

in Health, medicine, and the sea
Technologies of mobility and transnational lives

reinforced each other. There is little doubt that without fast-expanding air travel, mass migration between Ireland and Poland would not have occurred on the same scale. However, it was of course not only the availability of low-cost air travel but also the changed regulatory environment after 2004 which created a new experience of mobility. As recalled by Filip: I do remember how I used to fly, I don’t know, to England, these humiliating experiences on the border. For me it is a big, big change … And now I’m flying to London next month and I know it will be kind of (like

in New mobilities in Europe

lands of origin and with their counterparts settled elsewhere. 6 In C. A. Bayly’s view, the study of transnational history is inextricable from the study of diasporas, since they act as conduits of capital, cultural practice, trust and information; diaspora networks have been at least as important as states and official agencies in stimulating mass migration in the modern world. 7 As expansive and ethnically diverse

in Writing imperial histories

practice in the age of mass migration. In Britain it led to the void in ethnic memory that was referred to at the start of this chapter. Its impact could be long lasting. In his Roots Schmoots: Journeys Among Jews (1993), third-generation British Jewish writer, Howard Jacobson, recalls that growing up in Manchester during the 1950s, there was neither interest in nor knowledge of migrant origins: Our grandparents, or our parents’ grandparents, had come over with chickens in their baggage fifty years before, fleeing the usual – some libel or pogrom or another, brewed up in

in The battle of Britishness
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From local to transnational

Anderson’s ‘imagined community’.11 Since most of the people who joined English societies knew about, but never met, their peers in far-flung lands, we find Anderson’s model, with its emphasis on the importance of modern media communication, appealing to explain this transnational identity of English ethnic societies, which formed and maintained impressive transoceanic systems of ethnic celebration.12 What is clear in all this is that, in an age of mass migration and epic continental expansion, these types of societies simply spread, through identified necessity, in line

in The English diaspora in North America