Open Access (free)
French clerical reformers and episcopal status

third of principalities, archangels and angels. The three triads of the ecclesiastical hierarchy consisted of ‘the operations of the sacraments, the godlike dispensers of the sacred things and those guided by them (the dispensers) . . . towards the sacred’. The highest division housed baptism, the eucharist and unction while the third held monastic orders, initiates (or holy people) and catechumens (those not yet admitted to the sacraments). Most importantly for our purpose, Bérulle placed hierarchs or bishops, priests and deacons in the middle triad.14 Figure 1

in Fathers, pastors and kings

. . . ministration of the Sacraments and service of God’. This may have been aimed principally at mere burglars. The group sentenced to death in 1556 for stealing ornaments from the parish church of Forres in Moray were probably simple criminals; likewise those who looted Cambuskenneth Abbey in 1558. The Dumfries man arrested in 1552 ‘for striking of a priest, and taking of the sacrament out of his hands’ was also as likely to have been motivated by personal malice as by any religious zeal. However, the burning of the parish church of Echt in Aberdeenshire, in 1558–59, was

in The origins of the Scottish Reformation
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sacred imagery and sacraments, his pedagogic use of the reader’s poetic apprehension, and those all-informing paradoxes of violent care and self-preserving self-destruction, as disparate as they seem, all fold together in the person of Southwell himself, and in the last physical act of his life. Southwell’s ministry, his correspondence, his sermons, his poetry were all predicated upon his wish to be

in Robert Southwell
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worship of the sacrament, and after my decease without any condition it shall remain unto this church to the said use. [d] [1474-5] Also, of the maidens’ collection for Our Lady light taper, 2 s 6 d . [e] [1454-5] Receipts for the sale of seats: In the first place, of Richard Batyn, goldsmith, procurator [i.e. churchwarden], for his seat and his

in Women in England c. 1275–1525
Clive Barker and the spectre of realism

Galilee , Rukenau's castle in Sacrament , the mural world in Coldheart Canyon – is limited, controlled, localised, stinted . Barker's better novels are those in which it is possible to go for long stretches forgetting that one is in fact reading a non-realist work. His very best writing is that which tends towards a gentle magic realism. The full-blown secondary-world schemas

in Clive Barker
Byron and Italian Catholicism

), it is not accurate, for any Mass involves careful ablutions, yet the overtly tangible detail clearly intrigues the poet in itself but does so only in so far as, once again, the narrator takes an insider Catholic position on the sacrament. This is not Protestant wine as symbol but wine actually changed (‘Converted by Christ’) into blood. In Catholic theology, taking communion does not absolve mortal sins, which contradict it, but it does forgive lesser 115 B yron and I talian Catholicism 115 sins.4 So Byron is right about ‘shriving their souls’ too. On its

in Byron and Italy
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was denounced. In Prussia, for example, Bismarck launched his Kulturkampf against German Catholics. Bishops and priests were imprisoned and by 1876, more than a million Catholics had been barred by the Prussian Government from receiving the sacraments.14 In Britain, William Gladstone denounced the moral and mental submission now demanded of Catholics by an infallible Pope. Moreover, he questioned the ability of Catholics to remain loyal to the state, given the deference now owed to Rome.15 The Franco-Prussian War signalled the collapse of the temporal power of the

in Michael Logue and the Catholic Church in Ireland, 1879–1925

Patrick supposedly drove the snakes from Ireland and converted pagan festivals into Christian ones, Cullen modernised a church that the suppression of Catholicism had turned into an untended garden. Priests of the previous generation had been active in politically mobilising Catholics and active in supervising their education, but expressions of religious worship – celebrations of the sacraments and funerals – were not housed in churches to the extent these came to be under Cullen’s influence. A number of chapters emphasise Cullen’s influence upon Catholicism in

in Irish adventures in nation-building

this responsibility, and there is no indication that this is the remit of men alone. This could be the reason why Foxe seems eager to restrict the parameters to private places, the traditional domain of women. Two reasons point us to this conclusion. First, we know that Foxe, seemingly without hesitation, incorporated examples of lollard women reciting scripture and teaching about the sacrament of the altar, saints, and images. 32 Isabel Tracher, caught up in Bishop John Longland’s interrogation of the Chiltern lollards, was said to have

in Lollards in the English Reformation

, Woman, Child or Servant’, 383). But this particular ‘dunghill’ is observed not by the dwarf but by Red Cross. What the dwarf is the first to see (and shows to his master) is the ‘mournfull sight’ (I.v.52.2) of the (unmourned) bodies within the dungeon. MUP_Walls_Final.indd 142 30/07/2013 16:14 Una’s adiaphoric dwarf 143 and the mass for the deceased (now classified as adiaphora rather than sacraments) had been retained by the Elizabethan Church.42 Indeed, the ‘Visitacion of the Sicke’ and the ‘Buriall of the Dead’ (as prescribed by the Book of Common Prayer

in God’s only daughter