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the recent past is much weaker than of the distant past. During the middle decades of the twentieth century the myth of the pagan witch was promoted by reputable historians, but as the pagan hypothesis crumbled before serious research it was taken up by parts of the emergent women’s and pagan movements as a symbol of the historical persecution of women and religious dissidents, and also seized upon by some evangelical Christians as evidence that witchcraft was the product of anti-Christian forces. But this interpretation too is passing, and Pearson’s research

in The Lancashire witches
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provisions and many other charities aimed at orphans, a system which attracted the attention of social reformers in the 1860s. Anti-cruelty legislation was introduced in the second half of the nineteenth century as reformist women such as Rosa Barrett, founder of the Dublin Aid Committee (later the NSPCC), advocated change. Children’s health became an issue of national importance in the late nineteenth century amid high infant and child mortality rates which caused increasing concerns for the rising generation.6 Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth century, PO

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
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Great Famine, Irish women either retreated from or, in some cases, were pushed out of, the public sphere, forced to accept an essentially domestic life within the home. Several decades later those women in institutions – from workhouses and hospitals to convents and Magdalen asylums – were controlled and contained within these spaces and thus trapped within Ireland’s larger Catholic and patriarchal culture.2 As Clara Fischer writes, Irish women’s presence in public space by the early twentieth century ‘came to be seen as a dereliction of their ­domestic duty and

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950

early twentieth centuries. In the first set of problems we must include the dilemmas of belief and unbelief by which ultimate purposes for action are embraced or rejected. Another issue following logically from this first is that if faith posits God as the ultimate purpose or destiny of human action, in what ways could Catholic literature imaginatively depict the problem of moral autonomy from God? Two additional issues exemplify the dilemmas just raised. First, the theme of homosexuality found in some Catholic writings highlights the

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914
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In a study of Chinese medical missions, John R. Stanley has argued that from the early years of the twentieth century, medical missionaries refused increasingly to act as jack-of-all-trades. Previously, they had been regarded as subordinates, providing their professional services under the overall leadership of the evangelising missionary-priests and subject to their command. From

in Missionaries and their medicine
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Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence

among the numbered Celtic-​cross headstones in quiet contemplation now appear in the hindsight and retrospection of the intervening period’s questioning of the Church to be themselves lost souls wandering aimlessly in separate directions, an allegory of the fate of late twentieth-​century Irish Catholicism. The impact of this image is not only in the moment of its taking, the instantaneous realisation on the part of the photographer that this particular time and place was in itself significant. Rather, it is also in the latency of the photograph and its capacity to

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
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‘This is your hour’

, religious actors, institutions and ideas were relevant across twentieth-century Europe. There have been many biographical or institutional studies of key figures and movements, but broader thematic analyses have sometimes been limited to theological or inner-church contexts. 25 There are exceptions, and Christianity’s role in British national (and imperial) identity through the mid twentieth century has been recognised. 26 There is, moreover, growing interest in the interactions among European churches, Christian concepts of order and twentieth-century modernity, with

in This is your hour

past that bound together heterogeneous elements in the Church of Ireland in the north and south of the country into the ­twentieth century. Social reform Women were at the forefront of social service provision and the driving force behind social reform in Ireland. Founded in 1897, the Philanthropic Reform Association, with leading members such as Rosa Barrett, sought workhouse reforms and initiated the Police Aided Children’s Clothing Society.2 The Alexandra Guild followed Octavia Hill’s lead in terms of social work and formed the Tenement Company 208 The

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940

, sometimes marked by struggles for power and influence. In the close-knit world of the Irish Catholic parish, conflicts between priests and women were as common as examples of trust and support. These lay–clerical struggles demonstrate how Irish Catholic women sometimes successfully negotiated patriarchal clerical power in the age of the ‘devotional revolution’ and well into the mid-twentieth century.5 Intimates By the post-famine era, Irish Catholic priests were, as one Galway cleric explained, ‘Judge, Jury and Secretary’ in their parishes.6 They not 210 irish women

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
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somewhat patronising way, always refer to as ‘the provinces’. Moreover, Leeds was and is an important Jewish community in its own right, the third largest in the country, and in the mid-twentieth century was the city with the highest Jewish percentage (always said to be 5%). Developments in urban history have moved the subject away from a narrow emphasis on physical development and urban social problems (slums and suburbs) to encompass a broader cultural approach which makes this book particularly relevant. Urban historians have long contended that the study of cities

in Leeds and its Jewish Community