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Opposing Palmerston, 1855–58

7 From war to peace: opposing Palmerston, 1855–58 I am afraid I shall be repeating what I have so often said before to your Lordships in expressing my want of confidence in the discretion and the prudence with which the foreign affairs of this country have been conducted . . . I see that the noble Viscount continues . . . all that mischievous interference with the affairs of foreign countries which I have so constantly deprecated here. (Derby, House of Lords, 16 March 1857) Once Palmerston was at the head of affairs, with a significant element of popular

in Peace, war and party politics
Past crimes, present memories

French crime fiction and the Second World War explores France's preoccupation with memories of the Second World War through an examination of crime fiction, one of popular culture's most enduring literary forms. The study analyses representations of the war years in a selection of French crime novels from the late 1940s to the 2000s. All the crime novels discussed grapple with the challenges of what it means for generations past and present to live in the shadow of the war: from memories of French resistance and collaboration to Jewish persecution and the legacies of the concentration camps. The book argues that crime fiction offers novel ways for charting the two-way traffic between official discourses and popular reconstructions of such a contested conflict in French cultural memory.

3 Academics at war – Bertrand Russell and Cambridge The University and the outbreak of war The thoughts and actions of the Cambridge mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell are central to this book. Russell was able to articulate with extraordinary clarity a fully humanistic opposition to the Great War and his ideas on war and the prevention of it directly affected the thinking of other individuals through his books, articles and speeches. On occasion, Russell’s concepts were echoed spontaneously by other like-minded people – often from dissimilar

in A war of individuals

7 Proportionality and the recourse to war ‘No war is just,’ wrote Vitoria, ‘the conduct of which is manifestly more harmful to the State than it is good and advantageous; and this is true regardless of other claims or reasons advanced to make of it a just war’ (quoted in Fernández-­Santamaria 1977, p. 139). The existence of a just cause, even when allied with legitimate authority, does not in itself justify recourse to war. The criterion of proportionality requires potential combatants to consider whether or not war is a fitting or proportionate response to the

in The ethics of war
Language, symbols and myths

The struggle in projects, ideas and symbols between the strongest Communist Party in the West and an anti-Communist and pro-Western government coalition was the most peculiar founding element of the Italian democratic political system after the Second World War.

Until now, most historians have focused their attention on political parties as the only players in the competition for the making of political orientations and civic identities in Italian public opinion. Others have considered Italian political struggle in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of the polarisation between Communism and organised Catholicism, due to the undoubted importance of the Church in Italian culture and social relations.

This book enlarges the view, looking at new aspects and players of the anti-Communist ‘front’. It takes into account the role of cultural associations, newspapers and the popular press in the selection and diffusion of critical judgements and images of Communism, highlighting a dimension that explains the force of anti-Communist opinions in Italy after 1989 and the crisis of traditional parties. The author also places the case of Italian Cold War anti-Communism in an international context for the first time.

TNWC03 16/11/06 11:27 AM Page 80 3 Hollywood and the one-ocean war The contribution of the American film industry to the war effort can be divided chronologically between preparatory propagandist films made before the attack on Pearl Harbor, and combat films made after it, and formally between non-fiction (newsreels, documentary and instructional films) and feature film productions. As in Britain, a convoluted relationship between the propaganda arm of government and the filmmaking establishment was wrought to mobilise and exploit the entertainment industry

in The naval war film

TNWC05 16/11/06 11:26 AM Page 120 5 American films of the Cold War Representations of naval operations, up to and including actual combat, in films made during the Cold War appear as varied and problematic as the political and operational complexities afflicting the navies themselves in that period. The moral clarity and narrative certainty sought in the war film genre, as it had evolved during the Second World War (in the clear delineation of goals, the unity to be sought and the enemies to be defeated in order to achieve them), were not readily or

in The naval war film
Classifying men lost in action

3 ‘Dead, missing or prisoner of war?’ – classifying men lost in action As we have already seen, despite the warnings from the experience of the First World War and the concerns of a number of charitable institutions, when war broke out in September 1939 the authorities concerned found themselves, once again, unprepared for the sheer scale of the burden that administering service allowances in a time of war would entail. By the end of 1939 large numbers of service families were already facing hardship as a result of delayed payments. At the end of May 1940 when

in War and welfare

9 Proportionality and the conduct of war In the just war tradition the specific requirements of just conduct are those of proportionality and noncombatant immunity. The criterion of proportionality, first encountered in respect of just recourse, resurfaces in relation to just conduct. Here the issue is not the justification of the war as a whole and in prospect, but the justification of the specific ways in which it is prosecuted. What is involved here is the proportionality of means rather than ends. Economy or restraint is the basic imperative, and combatants

in The ethics of war
A biopolitical critique

2935 The Biopolitics 12/9/06 11:06 Page 1 1 War and liberal modernity: a biopolitical critique I T N E S S E D from the vantage point of a twenty-first century characterised by the apparent pacification and interdependence of societies globally, liberalism would look to have proven itself the most authoritative account of the development of modern international relations. Definitive of liberalism has been its belief in the ability to establish societies through the removal of life from the condition of war and the provision of political means to allow human

in The biopolitics of the war on terror