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absence of French genealogical literature by arguing that the King circa 1100 did not have the need to prove his dynastic validity. 5 The Fleury text argues against this point, and its production in the year following the successful capture of Jerusalem by the first crusaders may help to explain its significance. As we saw in Chapter 2 , at precisely the time this text was composed, the Capetian court was in a period of crisis. Philip I had not joined the First Crusade, and his brother Hugh had (in 1100) come home in shame, having deserted the crusading host and not

in Constructing kingship
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the domestic level, what are (if any) the implications of this study for another key aspect of the literature on ‘Europeanisation’, namely institutional convergence (Knill 2001)? The aforementioned analysis of the similarities of the cases of Greece and France (where the problems that were expected and were subsequently identified have also been, to a large extent, resolved) may give the impression of a gradual institutional convergence stemming from the exigencies of the implementation of the directives examined here. Such an impression would be misleading for

in The power of the centre
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Semantics of intellectual disability

occupation and not their alleged state of mind. ‘Idiocy, mental deficiency, folly, mental retardation, intellectual disability and learning disability are not all the same names for a trans-historically stable subject.’ 3 The underlying ideas might be related, but the individual manifestations varied across time and place, possibly with the exception of the universal ‘folly’ of late fifteenth- and sixteenth-century literature ascribed to all post-lapsarian humanity. Which all points to the importance of including the broader context of culture when considering the

in Fools and idiots?
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Introduction Prompted by the centenaries of the Great War and Russian Revolution, scholars are reassessing the place of 1919 in French and global history. Tyler Stovall recently deemed this year to be the high point of French labour militancy and a revolutionary moment with regard to Parisian workers, tenants and consumers.1 As such, he challenged the convention that 1920 signalled the apogee of post-war unrest with the rail workers’ strikes and the foundation of the French Communist Party (PCF) at the Congress of Tours.2 Given his focus upon France’s capital

in Mutinous memories
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Filming and funding the heritage genre The quality costume drama of the 1980s and 1990s has been termed the ‘heritage film’ (Higson 1993 ). In France it is a genre closely related to la tradition de qualité (see chapter 1 ), although chronologically it parallels the British trend for nostalgia initiated by Chariots of Fire in 1981. Classical in form, historical or literary

in Contemporary French cinema
European and African narrative writing of the interwar period

Europeans in the first half of the twentieth century? This chapter takes its point of departure from the intersection of colonial discourses of development and narrative writing on Africa in France and Great Britain during the interwar period. After theoretical and methodological reflections on the contribution of literature studies to the history of development it will proceed to

in Developing Africa
Open Access (free)
The cartographic consciousness of Irish gothic fiction

Romantic-era Irish literary gothic also emphasises the falsity of our assumption that contemporary English gothic literature almost universally deploys Catholic Continental locales. Far from anomalous in the British gothic output of his day, Melville's evocative depictions of local geography represent an established pattern that has been all too often dismissed. As Kilfeather has noted, ‘critical attention to the eighteenth-century female gothic novel has been so dominated by readings of Ann Radcliffe that Radcliffe's Italian and French settings have been defined as

in The gothic novel in Ireland, c. 1760–1829
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Hamlet is probably the most famous play in literature, thoroughly international in its appeal, admired and imitated in Asian cultures as well as in the west. Its fame in its own time may be considered a matter of record, though the record has certainly been overstated; and that is a good place to begin. For a reading public, several Shakespeare plays were

in Spectacular Performances
An introduction

This book provides an introduction to French film studies. It concentrates on films which have had either a theatrical or video release in Britain, or which are available on video or DVD from France. Most avant-garde film-makers, including Germaine Dulac, were unable to continue in the 1930s, faced with the technical demands and high production costs of the sound film. Exacerbated by the Depression, and above all by the financial collapse of both Gaumont and Pathé, film production fell from 158 features the previous year to only 126 in 1934, and 115 in 1935. While poetic realism was at its height, a talismanic figure in post-war film was faced with a generally lukewarm reception from critics and audiences. Thanks largely to German finance and also to an influx of filmmakers replacing those who had departed, after 1940 French film. If 1968 marked a watershed in French cinema's engagement with politics and history 1974 did the same for representations of sexuality. In that year, pornography entered mainstream French cinema. Although film-making remains male-dominated in France as elsewhere, 'more women have taken an active part in French cinema than in any other national film industry'. A quarter of all French films made in 1981 were polars, and many of those were box-office successes. French fantasy has had a particular national outlet: the bande dessinée. The heritage film often takes its subject or source from the 'culturally respectable classicisms of literature, painting, music'.

The Scarlet Pimpernel, in reality Sir Percy Blakeney, Baronet, is a character who decisively fixed the image of the French Revolution in the minds of successive generations of British readers. The books, the play and later the films charting his adventures established beyond doubt that the French revolutionaries were a bloodthirsty, beastly, ungentlemanly mob and that a well-brought-up aristocrat could run rings round them, particularly if he

in Cinema and radio in Britain and America, 1920–60