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The CDC’s mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958
Paul Greenough

–90. 27 US, National Security Council, Record of Actions Taken, Acting Executive Secretary, to the National Security Council, 13 February 1956. DDRS Document Number: CK3100395518, www.archives.gov/research/search/ (accessed 1 June 2014). See also R. W. Benjamin and J. H. Kautsky, ‘Communism and Economic Development’, in American Political Science Review , 62:1 (March 1968), pp. 110

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Bonnie Evans

other professionals acting only as agents to support this. It is only recently that this has begun to change. The Autism Act 2009 began this transition with the legal and political acknowledgement that autistic children become autistic adults, ensuring that autism was listed specifically in policy documents relating to social care for autistic people when they left the education system. The Children and Families

in The metamorphosis of autism
Mary Warnock, embryos and moral expertise
Duncan Wilson

4 ‘Where to draw the line?’ Mary Warnock, embryos and moral expertise The political enthusiasm for external oversight was made clear in 1982 when officials at the DHSS broke from the longstanding reliance on scientific and medical expertise and prioritised ‘an outside chairman’ for their public inquiry into IVF and embryo experiments. After a brief discussion about possible chairs, politicians chose the moral philosopher Mary Warnock to chair an inquiry in which, for the first time, individuals from other professions outnumbered doctors and scientists. Warnock

in The making of British bioethics
Open Access (free)
Nursing work and nurses’ space in the Second World War: a gendered construction
Jane Brooks

World War’, in Jane Brooks and Christine E. Hallett (eds), One Hundred Years of Wartime Nursing Practices, 1854–1953 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015); Kirsty Harris, More than Bombs and Bandages: Australian Army Nurses at Work in World War I (Newport: Big Sky Publishing, 2011); Ruth Rae, Scarlet Poppies: The Army Experience of Australian Nurses during World War I (Burwood: College of Nursing, 2004). 12 Monica Baly, Nursing and Social Change (London: Routledge, 1995), 154. 13 Anne Marie Rafferty, The Politics of Nursing Knowledge (London: Routledge

in Negotiating nursing
Jane Brooks

were used to feminise men’s work ‘for the duration’, sometimes by the employers to enable them to pay women less8 and sometimes by the women themselves to retain their femininity, including the clothes they wore, hairstyles and make-­up.9 The pioneering use of women within the highly dangerous Special 60 Challenging nursing spaces Operations Executive (SOE) appears to suggest an inclusive attitude towards women’s active participation in the war effort. However, being women not only influenced the work that they did as spies but also linked the efficacy of their

in Negotiating nursing
Bonnie Evans

the development of an ‘archipelago’ of ‘think-tanks’ established in the post-war period in Britain and internationally with support by interested donors, who developed an international model of neoliberalism as a valid political philosophy. 1 The 1980s saw this political model thrive and it continued to hold weight in British politics and elsewhere in the 2000s through the

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Jane Brooks

demands that had been placed on them by military commanders and society in general.25 Even in a highly mobile war the expectation was that nurses, as women, would be kept away from combat, yet as nurses their skills were needed close to the front line. Ultimately, whatever the political rhetoric about the safety of women in war, trained nurses’ skills were essential in combat zones to salvage soldiers.26 Despite this, they still needed to broker careful gender negotiations on active service overseas to ensure their place at the front. In July 1943 Sister Agnes Morgan

in Negotiating nursing
George Campbell Gosling

of the village socialist who has to submit to a political lecture from the squire before he can get one?’ 9 This system was not particular to the Bristol Infirmary and became the standard means of accessing services as the voluntary hospital system expanded through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 10 In the latter, however, admission directly by doctors increasingly became an alternative, including at the Bristol

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
The emergence of bioethics in British universities
Duncan Wilson

5 ‘A service to the community as a whole’: the emergence of bioethics in British universities Bioethics made inroads into British universities during the 1980s, thanks largely to those individuals, groups and political changes that we have already encountered. During the late 1970s and early 1980s members of medical groups and public figures such as Ian Kennedy called for greater emphasis on medical ethics in student training. They also stressed the benefits of ‘non-medical’ input, claiming that it relieved clinicians from teaching responsibilities and would

in The making of British bioethics
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation
Jaime Benchimol

agents of the disease, and curative serums were developed. 3 The impact of Freire's vaccine was partly due to the proliferation of microbe hunters, medical and scientific associations and periodicals, colonial and commercial interests, in addition to Freire's zeal in fostering social alliances at a time when science was helping to transform Brazil's political and social structures. Freire's vaccine

in The politics of vaccination