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WWI and the revolution in artificial limbs

Engineers, too, argued that such a mechanically sophisticated arm was not appropriate for the working-class disabled. Not only was it impractical, but its high maintenance costs made it far more useful and valuable for the ‘invalid intellectuals, especially for those in well-to-do circumstances’.84 In short, the Carnes Arm was a middle-class arm. It was not the only prosthesis available to Germany’s middle class. Ferdinand Sauerbruch, who criticised the universal arms for industrial workers, had an invention of his own to promote – the Sauerbruch Arm. An accomplished

in Recycling the disabled
Re-membering the disabled in war-time Germany

office, many disabled soldiers were ‘deluding themselves’ with the idea that training in bookkeeping or typing would allow them to find an ‘easy job’. Although they argued that these professions were already overfilled before the war and thus should be avoided, the language used suggests that Berufsberäter were just as concerned with monitoring access to gateway professions to the lower middle classes.74 In this sense, they were echoing the sentiments of Germany’s orthopaedists who also reported a widespread attempt at social climbing by veterans. Drawing on his

in Recycling the disabled
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emigration of Russian Jews across Germany and thence to this country was at the time in rapid and continual progress, it became necessary at once to warn the authorities of those English Ports at which these immigrants and trans-migrants were landing.17 Considering the devastation which the 1892 epidemic caused in parts of Europe, America, the Middle East, as well as Northern Africa, British precautions proved comparably effective. St Petersburg and Hamburg, for example, suffered thousands of deaths in late August and early September 1892, while the British Medical

in The English System
Social progressivism and the transformation of provincial medicine

historians sought to understand this engagement with natural philosophical knowledge in relation to the social, cultural and confessional politics of the ‘Age of Reform’. According to scholars such as Ian Inkster and Arnold Thackray, science functioned as a part of the counter-cultural and reforming ideology of elements within the ‘middle class’ who, while possessed of economic capital, were aware of their relative political and social marginality, their lack, as it were, of symbolic and cultural capital. For these largely urban men, lesser industrialists, ‘professionals

in Performing medicine
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polite society, which depicted disability in terms of personal tragedy, shame and loss, meant that affluent middle-​and upper-​class consumers not only demanded a prosthesis that was functional but also required one indistinguishable from a real body part. Such disguised prostheses provided users with the appearance of ‘normalcy’. The most expensive artificial limbs designed during this period mimicked human limbs in terms of shape and colour, while hearing aids made from fabric, silver and porcelain were disguised as everyday objects, including beards, fans, ornaments

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
The moron as an enemy force

that country’.72 Walker’s arguments bolstered the fears of race suicide that took hold 96 FRAMING THE MORON during the early decades of the twentieth century, and were exacerbated by the growing interest in birth control among the upper and middle classes. Statistical demographics pertaining to the relative numbers of children in immigrant and ‘native’ families seemed to provide evidence substantiating these concerns.73 Harry Laughlin, for example, contended that if reproduction rates remained unchanged, the descendants of new immigrants would be a majority of

in Framing the moron
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secure the political viability of the new state, together with the country’s strategic value as a buffer against French aggression, as it was shared by international decision-makers.20 Belgium became a state where capitalism could blossom. While physicians did not belong to the upper ranks of the industrial bourgeoisie, who profited most economically and politically, they did belong to an upcoming middle class and petty bourgeoisie that had supported the revolution of 1830 and gradually profited from the nation’s economic success. They were part of a social stratum

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium
Neglect, incompetence, and unintentional killing

killing 119 publicity, whether intentionally or coincidentally addressed to competitors, could backfire given the broader tastes and judgement of the lay public, and qualified men were not insulated from exposure by the same means.8 Any middle-class man might be challenged, reprobated or prosecuted as a result of inquest proceedings, but the risks for medical men were occupationally inflected in ways that queried their claims to manly probity. Death was an event which practitioners were supposed to postpone, so an inquest was at the very least evidence of inadequate

in Medical misadventure in an age of professionalisation, 1780–1890

transgression.43 As with British law, lesbians were not regarded as a threat to Nazi racial policies and were not generally targeted for persecution. This vicious campaign against  Germany’s homosexuals was led by the head of the Schutzastaffel (SS, defence detachment), Reichsfuhrer (leader) Heinrich Himmler.44 The Nazi persecution of homosexuals was staunchly informed by the influential eugenics movement. Eugenics strongly advocated white, middle-class fertility and discouraged childbirth among the poor and  the mentally ‘unfit’.45 Himmler’s obsession with eugenics led  him

in ‘Curing queers’
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Australian flight nurses in the Korean War

’. The nurses also came from traditional middle-class backgrounds which enabled them to adapt to the requirements of the officer status they had on entry. This chapter focuses on the RAAF flight nurses who conducted 255 Technological warfare medical air evacuations during the Korean War from 1950 to 1953 – this was part of a wider study on RAAF flight nurses in war. There were very limited secondary sources on air evacuation outside of the Australian Defence Department when the study began in 2001. However, further sources include government files in the Australian

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953