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to recover from pervious prolonged periods of resource-related violence. Cross-cutting security linkages Beyond their impact on African conflict and the obvious direct links to food, economic, health, and environmental security issues, resource conflict and environmental degradation can also be indirectly linked to other pressing human security challenges on the continent. These include issues of governance and corruption, poverty, transnational Resource conflict and the environment 187 criminal activity, and migration. While these issues are always relevant to

in African security in the twenty-first century

, such as drug, small arms, and human trafficking that “generate violence and threaten to destabilize the country and region.”75 Moreover, in 2014 INTERPOL established a dedicated unit in Nairobi to assist African countries to better tackle the problem of wildlife crime (especially illegal ivory trafficking) and other environmental crimes.76 • The International Organization for Migration has expanded its traditional mission of prevention, awareness raising, and humanitarian assistance to migrants to now include migration health issues. Monitoring, controlling, and

in African security in the twenty-first century

functioning. These bodies were the Office of the Prime Minister’s Advisor on Arab Affairs, the Military Government, the Arab departments in the various ministries and quasi councils (which were most likely the security committees). The second represented a sociological analysis of the Palestinian minority and the plausibility of migration of the different groups during the transitory period. He divided the Palestinians into three class categories. The first comprised of 15 per cent of the population and was made up of big merchants, large landowners and high-ranking civil

in Thorough surveillance
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population has become the main concern of all modern states, for Israel, the size, natural growth, structure, migration and spatial distribution of Palestinians and Israeli Jews have had a fundamental import to its functioning, even to its very survival. As a Jewish state, Israel is premised on racial/national domination (Sa’di, 2004a); therefore, it has devised different, even opposing, principles of governmentality for Palestinians and Jews. Intentionality, elaborate planning and learning, therefore, are at the heart of how Israel handled populations. As the Palestinians

in Thorough surveillance

armies and leading to the mass migrations of peoples into and out of Kosovo proper. Kosovo has, somewhat obviously, been the site of numerous conflicts.16 More often than not, violence in the region has revolved around the complexities of family and clan rivalries. As Ger Duijzings writes, since living conditions in Kosovo were both harsh and highly competitive, the extended family provided ‘not only a kind of safety net (as is the case in Western Europe), but also a major source of group solidarity and primary defensive-and-attack unit, strictly organised along

in Contemporary violence

v 12 v The refugee question in Bulgaria before, during and after the First World War Nikolai Vukov Introduction Bulgaria stands out as a specific case in relation to population displacement during the First World War for several reasons. The migration of ethnic Bulgarians to Bulgarian territory took place on a very large scale prior to the First World War, reflecting the consequences of popular uprisings at the turn of the century, and especially the impact of the Balkan Wars in 1912–13, the second of which ended with a catastrophic defeat for Bulgaria and a

in Europe on the move

nature of territorial borders (Bruter, 2005), the tension stemming from current migration and mobility flows (Boswell and Geddes, 2011), and the dual, albeit contested, citizenship statuses of most European citizens (Preuss, 1996) suggest that the issue of European identity is as important today as ever. It mirrors the debate introduced in Chapter 1 on the complex historical and cultural nature of Europeanisation. Owing to the widespread recognition of the significance identity can have, there remains much disagreement among scholars about the genuine meaning of, and

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
Open Access (free)

, Henry Barkey attributes the discovery of Kurdishness and the process of politization by students and workers of Kurdish origin, to large migration movements inside Turkey. These people, who previously had become thoroughly Turkish, migrated from the rural areas to Turkey’s metropolitan industrial and educational centers, Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara. 9 After the September 1980 coup in Turkey, Ocalan – the name means “revenge” – fled to Lebanon. From there, and from Syria or Syrian-controlled territory, he directed the Kurdish uprising from 15 August 1984 until his

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Andrew Williams

title of UNRRA. Even more significantly there was discussion on the creation of a ‘Currency Stabilisation Fund’ (eventually the International Monetary Fund; IMF), on an International Investment Agency (eventually the World Bank) and on a means of relaxing trade barriers. There was also discussion not only of ‘old’ political areas such as trusteeship, and of functional areas such as telecommunications, migration and settlement, but also of new ones such as human rights.52 We have seen that out of the discussions of the failure of the LON and the problem of how to solve

in Failed imagination?

-intensive industrialization and urbanization. Over time a distinct bias became apparent towards urban settlements in general and big cities in particular’ (cited in Datt and Sundharam, 2001: 159) India has been urbanizing rapidly and this process is unlikely to be reversed as it is a global trend. However, the growth of megacities creates problems that have to be tackled at various levels (Dutt, 2000), an issue that has been discussed elsewhere. One of the factors responsible for rural–urban migration or migration from the villages to the cities is the lack of economic opportunities in the

in India in a globalized world