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Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika

of Christianity, commerce and civilisation that the Livingstonean and Victorian imaginations of missionary enterprise had envisaged. But if by the 1910s and 1920s they had become, in effect, part of the mix of service providers, they could not be said to constitute a ‘sector’ in the sense of a collective identity, shared values and objectives and common interests. Reflecting the history of the

in Beyond the state
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missionary networks originated at a local level, mirroring the picture of overall movement out of Germany, especially from Württemberg. Nevertheless, the information available, especially on missionaries, also allows a consideration of personal motivations. An investigation of the causes and processes that conveyed Germans to India therefore needs to consider structures, networks and individual choice

in The Germans in India

The Germans become German In the century leading up to the First World War, the German elites in India had an undeveloped idea of their national identity, which in most cases, and especially for those working for missionary organisations, remained subconscious. For these religious proselytisers, the basis of their identity remained their belief in a Lutheran or Roman

in The Germans in India
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Two places at once

in his head and heart, he now needed to acquire ways of performing his new identity as a missionary, and the ship’s rhythms and spaces provided a multivalent setting for contemplation, struggle and transformation. The ship was laden with emotion, the yearnings of departure from loved ones carried up the gangplank with the material provisions. Like the Wilsons, the Joneses were only

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism
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A new professional learning space, 1865–90

abroad adjusted to this new reality by subtly changing their identity as sponsors of mission outreach. For example, the non-denominational ‘Indian Female Normal and Instructional Society’ was to transform itself in the early 1880s into the ‘Zenana Medical and Bible Mission’. 31 In this way the primacy of the missionary conversion field authorised a blurring, and was even an amalgam, of the professional

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
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Ireland, Nigeria and the politics of civil war

said to make their lot more difficult or draw the anger of Gen Gowon on their heads. The work of the Church in those regions is as important as the work of the Church in Biafra.’14 90 Ireland, Africa and the end of empire It was more difficult to impose these decisions on the ground. Based in the heart of Biafran territory, the Holy Ghost missionaries naturally developed a close identity with their parishioners. But it was their determined independence that most frightened Irish officials. A district in its own right, the order’s Nigerian mission was less inclined

in Ireland, Africa and the end of empire
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Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing

. Digby, ‘Race, identity and the nursing profession in South Africa, c. 1850–1958’, in B. Mortimer and S. McGann (eds), New Directions in the History of Nursing: International Perspectives (London: Routledge, 2005), pp. 109–24. 18 Nestel, ‘(Ad)ministering angels’, 258. 19 J. and J. Comaroff, ‘Cultivation, Christianity and colonialism’, in J. de Grunchy (ed.), The London Missionary Society in Southern Africa (Cape Town: David Phillip, 1999), p. 81. 20 The comparative differences between nurses working for the ‘colonial enterprise’ such as the Colonial Nursing Association

in Colonial caring

classical. This codification of Indian plants within European systems was a more complex and distinct process than Schiebinger allows for, which involved contribution from German missionaries, British surgeons and the Orientalists who studied Indian plants, medical practices and texts. It was primarily through their studies that the plants of Coromandel and their medicinal products received new scientific identities and became part of an imperial pharmacopoeia. Among the earliest in this field was the surgeon Samuel Brown, who

in Materials and medicine

native Gaelic: ‘Welsh words convey ideas to their infant minds as soon as they can read them, which is not the case when they are taught to read a language they do not understand’. 56 The orality of the Welsh system transferred very effectively to teaching a people whose culture and identity were based entirely on memory and oral recitation. The Welsh missionaries brought with them

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism

missionary to show much affection to those amongst whom he labours; to be friendly and cheerful and yet to keep his distance’. 36 Children were born and children died with regular monotony through the early decades of the British military station and the Welsh mission at Cherrapunji. Such mortality affected men’s identities as fathers, as breadwinners and as moral leaders who saw their roles as

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism