Alfred and Victorian progress

5 ‘The root and spring of everything we love in church and state’: Alfred and Victorian progress At the second planning meeting for the Alfred Millenary celebrations, Conan Doyle asserted, ‘What we are commemorating is not merely the anniversary of the death of King Alfred, but the greatness of those institutions which he founded’.1 The institutions to which he was alluding included the navy, the British Empire, Oxford University and a free education system. In the 1901 commemorations, as we have seen, these claims were represented by processions of academics

in ‘England’s darling’
Coping with separation during the Napoleonic Wars (the Fremantle papers, 1800–14)

separation in earlier wars.2 As now, they experienced the anxiety of parting, loneliness of separation, vicissitudes of communication and fearful uncertainty of outcomes for their loved ones. Moreover, their separations were longer (three-year deployments were not unusual), and communication was much slower and sporadic at best. Many women – particularly sailors’ wives – also struggled with financial insecurity. The Royal Navy’s remittance system, established during the Seven Years’ War (1756–63), enabled sailors to allot a portion of their salaries to their wives or

in A new naval history

traders and their captives; perilous cruises to shore in dilapidated prize vessels; outbreaks of disease and the death of British sailors. It might seem natural that reports of this work at the coal-face of Britain’s anti-slave-trade policy should take centre-stage in its cultural dissemination. Regency Britain witnessed a rise in esteem for the gentleman-officer of the navy

in The suppression of the Atlantic slave trade
An absence of trained nurses and basic resources

survey of military nursing from the time of Suleiman the Magnificent but makes no mention of the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Russo-Turk Wars until the war of 1877–78. The section for the Ottoman Empire in the Turkish government archives lists no entries for the Crimean War. Most of what we know about the Turkish medical department comes from the writings of two British observers, Rear Admiral Adolphus Slade and Dr Humphry Sandwith. Slade spent many years in Turkey: in 1849, retaining his rank in the Royal Navy, he entered the Ottoman service as administrative

in Beyond Nightingale

secretary at Greenwich Hospital. By this time, the country was victorious, and Locker’s revised proposal to create a ‘national Gallery of Pictures and Sculptures, to commemorate the splendid Services of the Royal Navy of England’ was successful.3 Opening in the spring of 1824, the National Gallery of Naval Art was one of the first ‘national’ collections of art to open in Britain, preceding the foundation of the National Gallery by a matter of months.4 The Naval Gallery, as it became better known, was primarily a commemorative enterprise. From the outset Locker proposed

in A new naval history
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A colonial world

life was underwritten by the Royal Navy’s gunboats and a garrison easily reinforced from India. The Shanghai Volunteer Corps, a paramilitary defence force, was a key institution for the British in the International Settlement, the focus of Shanghailander loyalty. Mark Wilkinson’s chapter shows that in January 1939 marines and navy personnel made up more than a third of the American community in Shanghai, and were twice as numerous as any other occupational group. There was a strong sense in which, however peaceful their avocations

in New frontiers

imagery, originally planned to call the Scouts ‘The Young Knights of the Empire’. Imperial heroes were regularly compared to knights. In juvenile literature as elsewhere the army, now the embodiment of Christian and chivalric values, came to be seen as the pre-eminent vehicle for service and imperial expansion. Hitherto juvenile literature had been dominated by the heroic image of the navy

in Popular imperialism and the military 1850–1950
British policies, practices and representations of naval coercion

The suppression of the Atlantic slave trade has puzzled nineteenth-century contemporaries and historians. The British Empire turned naval power and moral outrage against a branch of commerce it had done so much to promote. This book deals with the British Royal Navy's suppression of the Atlantic slave trade. It traces the political debates which framed policies for the British state's waning but unbroken commitment to slave-trade suppression. If protectionists failed to stop free trade and anti-coercionists failed to withdraw the cruisers, then they did both succeed in reshaping domestic debates to support labour coercion. The book examines details of the work of the navy's West Africa Squadron which have been passed over in earlier narrative accounts. The liberty afforded to the individuals who entered as apprentices into Sierra Leone cannot be clearly distinguished from the bonded labour awaiting them had their enslavers completed the voyage to the Americas. The experiences of sailors and Africans ashore and on ship often stand in contrast to contemporaneous representations of naval suppression. Comparison of the health of African and European sailors serving on the West Africa Station provides insight into the degree to which naval medicine was racialised. The book discusses the anti-slave trade squadron's wider, cultural significance, and its role in the shaping of geographical knowledge of West Africa. It charts the ways in which slave-trade suppression in the Atlantic Ocean was represented in material culture, and the legacy of this commemoration for historical writing and public memory in the subsequent 200 years.

The metropole

children they also served a very necessary practical purpose. Elizabeth provided George with important family connections, the promise of property and heirs to continue the family interest. Their children were modelled from a young age to conform to middle-class expectations of gender: for the boys the law, the navy and the merchant house, for the girls an advantageous marriage

in The bonds of family
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The armed forces of the colonial powers c. 1700–1964

For imperialists, the concept of guardian is specifically to the armed forces that kept watch on the frontiers and in the heartlands of imperial territories. Large parts of Asia and Africa, and the islands of the Pacific and the Caribbean were imperial possessions. This book discusses how military requirements and North Indian military culture, shaped the cantonments and considers the problems posed by venereal diseases and alcohol, and the sanitary strategies pursued to combat them. The trans-border Pathan tribes remained an insistent problem in Indian defence between 1849 and 1947. The book examines the process by which the Dutch elite recruited military allies, and the contribution of Indonesian soldiers to the actual fighting. The idea of naval guardianship as expressed in the campaign against the South Pacific labour trade is examined. The book reveals the extent of military influence of the Schutztruppen on the political developments in the German protectorates in German South-West Africa and German East Africa. The U.S. Army, charged with defending the Pacific possessions of the Philippines and Hawaii, encountered a predicament similar to that of the mythological Cerberus. The regimentation of military families linked access to women with reliable service, and enabled the King's African Rifles to inspire a high level of discipline in its African soldiers, askaris. The book explains the political and military pressures which drove successive French governments to widen the scope of French military operations in Algeria between 1954 and 1958. It also explores gender issues and African colonial armies.