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Ian Aitken

: 41). It has been argued in Chapter 4 that, in the final periods of his career, Lukács became preoccupied with both the nature of empirical experience and a phenomenological approach to knowledge: with an empirical phenomenology. In this respect, both The Specificity of the Aesthetic and the Ontology can be seen to form part of one greater

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Ilan Zvi Baron

“other side” of the science wars, those who are concerned with context, meaning, interpretation, and intersubjectivity. In philosophy this turn has its modern start in hermeneutic phenomenology, and that is where we need to begin. The chapter ends by arguing for the importance of political responsibility and of how by recasting and re-emphasising the politics of responsibility in an intersubjective world it becomes possible to address the current failures of our political leaders and political systems. Interpretation and responsibility There are some good reasons why

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Martyn Hammersley

aim of its analysis is to describe how social phenomena are generated through processes of social interaction on particular occasions in particular locales, and perhaps also to identify trans-contextual methods that structure these processes. Like phenomenology, which as we have seen was an important early influence upon it, the aim is to describe how the world is constituted, not to document causal processes operating within it. A very different meaning often given to the term ‘theory’ by social scientists, perhaps even more influential, refers to a framework of

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Chris Abel

themselves, but also among architectural theorists.6 However, regardless of the valuable insights phenomenology provides into human experience and the existential role of the human body, it remains intentionally focused on describing the world as directly experienced in the here and now – phenomenology in itself has little to offer that might explain how we got to be the way we are, or what there might have been in our past to influence present perceptions. Likewise, while evolutionary theory promises to fill those gaps, it too is hobbled in its own manner by neo

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Derek Robbins

and others, but the attraction for him of phenomenology was that it methodologically legitimated his intention to subject inter-personal social relations to unprejudiced scrutiny, not that it supplied him with a valid ‘philosophy’. This scrutiny involved understanding the agency of individual selves in constructing social reality. He did not conceive of these acting selves as themselves socially constituted and the constructed social reality was autonomously ‘social’ rather than comprehensively societal. Social scientists perform a role in society as particular

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Series:

Lisa Downing

subvert the generally accepted relationship of authority between high theory and popular cultural production, and to collapse the hierarchy of high and low cultural forms. For Žižek, ‘Hollywood is conceived as a “phenomenology” of the Lacanian spirit, its appearing for the common consciousness’ (Žižek 2001 : xi). As well as undertaking close readings of Leconte’s films as texts in their own right, and as

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Introduction

Encountering Irigaray

Series:

Morny Joy

philosophical aspects to her work – phenomenology first and foremost – but also psychoanalytic theory, dialectics and ethics. These elements are never employed, however, in a manner that is consistent with their traditional usage. The following quotation is an illustration of her combination of certain of these approaches with specific reference to the work of Hegel: Using phenomenology without dialectic would risk nevertheless a reconstruction of a solipsistic world, including a feminine world unconcerned with the masculine world or which accepts remaining parallel to the

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Series:

Darren Waldron

impacted on social relations. Where modernity may be said to encourage rationality over instinct, individualism over altruism, in Demy’s world, cogitation and vanity alienate people from their environment. Moreover, Demy’s cinema plays out the tensions between predestiny and freedom of choice. As such they lend themselves well to readings informed by phenomenology. Through his manipulation of time and space, his characters are forced to adopt strategies to cope with their environment, including perceiving the real, material world through a knowing, theatrical and

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Derek Robbins

’(Grathoff, ed., 1989, 160). In a later letter to Schutz of 17 February 1952, Gurwitsch explains that he had written the putative Les trois domaines du Réel during the war when the works of Sartre and Merleau-Ponty were not accessible but that his intention was now to incorporate comment on French phenomenology. Embree clarifies that this fifth book was the fourth and last chapter of the first draft of A Field Theory of Consciousness, written during the Second World War, and that what was published in 1957/1964 was an elaboration into six parts of the first three chapters of

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James Zborowski

special attention.19 Heidegger’s existential phenomenology wants to draw attention to the fundamentality of humans’ ‘being-in-the-world’20 with others. That is to say, according to Heidegger, the place we begin, and the place philosophy should likewise begin, is not with an individual perceiving subject, which through coming to know and understand itself can then understand others. Rather, the reverse is the case: our being (our Dasein) is inextricable from our being-in-the-world, and it is this shared context that forms the basis of our understandings of ourselves and