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History and context
Sally Mayall Brasher

The hospital movement in Europe arose out of a tradition of charity and religious life that originated in the earliest days of Christianity. The perception of who deserved charity and whose responsibility it was to provide such relief changed considerably by the twelfth century as the populations of cities grew and the ability of ecclesiastical institutions to serve them diminished. The perception of personal charity shifted from the idea of caritas to misericordia . Caritas , the term employed in the earlier Middle Ages, refers to

in Hospitals and charity
Open Access (free)
Sarah Roddy

historians have hypothesised that a concern for the religious welfare of the departed may have coloured clerical condemnation of the exodus, there has been little substantiating analysis of the pastoral response of the Irish Catholic Church to the mass out-movement of their congregations.33 Examination of what the Freeman’s Journal termed ‘priests for the emigrants’ has instead been the almost exclusive preserve of ecclesiastical historians, often moonlighting clergy, who have arguably treated the subject of the pastoral response of the Catholic Church with excessive

in Population, providence and empire
Abstract only
The Church and education
John M. MacKenzie and Nigel R. Dalziel

have been displayed by their Dutch predecessors. If they became socially and linguistically assimilated with their congregations, they brought fresh educational and theological outlooks to bear. In the end the DRC became something of a Dutch/Scots hybrid. Religious ideas and practices are modified in their transference across the globe like any others. Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Utrecht, Cape Town, Graaff Reinet (or

in The Scots in South Africa
J. F. Merritt

better understanding. Indeed, much of the Pathway emphasized the importance of voluntary religion and the continuing religious education that should occur within each household – a vital supplement to church services within a parish where, as Hill remarked, ‘your congregation is as the 37 thousands of Israel’. Heads of households were exhorted to bring their families to church with them and to make sure that their servants accompanied them both to and from the church, and to discuss the sermon back at home ‘and see that each of my 38 Family have learned somewhat

in The social world of early modern Westminster
Constructing imperial identity through Liverpool petition struggles
Joshua Civin

the politics of religious toleration. These movements allowed Dissenters to strengthen their own claim to equitable treatment. Besides arguing against the sati, congregations sought state intervention to ensure that non-Anglican missionaries throughout the empire enjoyed ‘the same unrestricted Freedom and secure Protection, as far as British Law and Authority extend, as is happily enjoyed in this favoured Kingdom’.50 The anti-slavery crusade likewise gained momentum because of concern over equitable treatment of missionaries. In Demerara in 1824 and in Jamaica in

in Parliaments, nations and identities in Britain and Ireland, 1660–1850
The congregationalist divines and the establishment of church and magistrate in Cromwellian England
Hunter Powell

general and author of the Instrument of government, appears to have used the Dissenting Brethren’s Humble proposals in framing the Instrument. It has not been possible to definitively connect Lambert to Owen in 1653, but Lambert was certainly worshipping in Owen’s gathered congregation by 1659.60 It is possible, however, that Lambert had become close to Owen when Owen was Cromwell’s army chaplain. Sir Gilbert Pickering and William Sydenham, both opponents of the religious radicals in the Nominated assembly, and who assisted Lambert in ­establishing the 229 Church

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66
Joseph Hardwick

incidence of individuals of non-British descent among Anglican congregations. 125 Prominent among the Cape Dutch who attended Anglican churches in Cape Town were the constitutional reformers J. H. Wicht, D. J. Cloete and F. S. Watermeyer: these men may have had religious reasons for attending Anglican services, but it is also significant that they were anglicised Afrikaners who called for representative

in An Anglican British World
T. M. Devine

some districts and the weakness of presbyterianism in many others had to be tackled not only for religious reasons but in order to achieve vital political ends. In addition, the perceived chronic instability of some areas could be eliminated by the more effective establishment of the church which would impose civil order through its strict supervision of individual behaviour by means of its system of courts. From the early THE IMPACT OF PROTESTANT EVANGELICALISM 101 eighteenth century, therefore, the conversion of the Highlanders became a joint mission of both

in Clanship to crofters’ war
Gabriel Glickman

of the domestic realm. I argue that these debates were shaped not just by local pressures, but by legal and theological contention in old England, in a confessional landscape reordered by the legacy of the Civil Wars. In the three kingdoms, as in the overseas provinces, the restored monarchy faced the question of how to bolster slender church authorities, manage the reality of religious pluralism and respond to congregations with a history of antipathy towards the Stuart crown. Colonial questions amplified fierce debates over the rival merits of comprehension

in Making the British empire, 1660–1800
The importance of the covenant in Scottish presbyterianism, 1560–c. 1700
R. Scott Spurlock

remained with any nation without error or heresie so long as he hath done with vs.’17 He makes the nation God’s tabernacle and claims Jerusalem and Judah had been no more blessed than Scotland.18 While interchangeably referring to nations and religious bodies, Bruce clearly expresses a distinction within this body of people, noting that God dwelled only in the hearts of a ‘chosen few’.19 In this way, Scottish presbyterian theologians developed explicitly, what Knox had claimed implicitly, that the whole nation could be chosen in a corporate, general election. No Scottish

in Church polity and politics in the British Atlantic world, c. 1635–66