yet another economic crisis and precipitating yet another
wave of austerity.
Politics of waiting
The PM’s words, while failing to be prophetic, did reveal something crucial
about the post-Soviet state project in Latvia. These words spoke of and were spoken within a particular temporal regime that has characterised it. As I will show
in this chapter, waiting has been both a target of the neoliberal socio-economic
and political reforms as well as, paradoxically, their pre-condition. The temporal
politics I am going to examine here throw a light on the economic
-to-eight episodes. This concluding
chapter analyses how Broadchurch (ITV, 2013–2017) and
Happy Valley (BBC, 2014–) typify the genre’s
latest direction in narrative and style. It specifically considers how
the use of HD aerial cameras in both series ideologically navigates the
growing socio-economic inequalities of their specific localities in
relation to gendered identities deriving from austerity politics
Portugal was seriously affected by the financial, economic and sovereign debt crisis. The crisis pushed the debate on European integration, notably on the European Monetary Union, into the public space. The bailout of the Portuguese state by the European institutions and the IMF in 2011 made austerity measures unavoidable and showed the other face of European integration – keywords in the public discourse switched from ‘modernisation’ and ‘funding’ to ‘austerity’ and ‘poverty’.
The economic situation in the whole of the EU is increasingly deteriorating. The crisis management strategy adopted by the politicians, comprising austerity mandates and cuts in wages, pensions and welfare payments, has in some countries led to a dramatic downward spiral in economic terms, and shockwaves have sent demand plummeting around Europe and the world … To prevent the recession from developing into an all-out depression, we are pleading for politicians to break the impasse and initiate a long
austerity policies but faced formidable obstacles. Ultimately, Labour reluctantly
succumbed to the prevailing neoliberal views – on the grounds that it was the only
way to regain economic credibility – by accepting public spending cuts as the only
acceptable recipe to eliminate the public deficit and public debt.
This chapter examines the Labour Party’s approach to the economy with a special
focus on its response to the 2008 global financial crisis and to the subsequent deficit
crisis. It will argue that under Ed Miliband the Labour Party sought to develop an
Britain and Africa in the twenty-first century provides the first analysis of the state of UK Africa policy in the era of austerity, Conservative government and Brexit. It explores how Britain’s relationship with Africa has evolved since the days of Blair, Brown and Make Poverty History and examines how a changing UK political environment, and international context, has impacted upon this long-standing – and deeply complex – relationship. This edited collection provides an indispensable reference point for researchers and practitioners interested in contemporary UK–Africa relations and the broader place of Africa in British politics and foreign policy. Across twelve chapters, the book’s contributors examine how far UK Africa policy has been transformed since the fall of the 1997–2010 Labour Government and how far Conservative, or Conservative-led, Governments have reshaped and re-cast links with the continent. The book includes analyses of UK approaches to diplomacy, security, peacekeeping, trade and international development in, or with, Africa. The contributions, offered by UK- and Africa-based scholars and practitioners, nonetheless take a broader perspective on UK–Africa relations, examining the changing perspectives, policies and actions of political parties, advocacy groups and the UK population itself. The authors argue that the Afro-optimism of the Blair years no longer provides the guiding framework for UK engagement with Africa. It has not, however, been replaced by an alternative paradigm, leaving significant space for different forms of relationship to be built, or reconstructed. The book includes a foreword by Chi Onwurah MP, Chair of the All Party Parliamentary Group for Africa.
Riga v. Athens
As I arrived in Riga in the autumn of 2011 to start my fieldwork, the Occupy
movement was springing up in many cities across the world. Protests against
austerity were spreading across Europe. Citizens’ movements were soon to turn
into anti-establishment political parties across the Mediterranean. Latvia was one
of the countries worst hit by the global financial crisis in the world. By the time
of the beginning of my fieldwork, the austerity regime had been in place for two
years. It had meant slashing government spending on welfare
environment was more adverse than expected, euro-area policies
were inconsistent, implementation by the Greek authorities was inadequate or
insufficient, debt restructuring should have been front loaded, fiscal austerity has
been excessive, and finally, not enough weight was given to the structural reform
and competitiveness objectives.6
The report stressed that the impact of austerity was difficult to assess.
Greece was already in recession when the programme was first implemented.
However, ‘it was evidently hazardous to impose a 10 percent GDP shock to a
, governments could put
a speedy end to the crisis (for example Krugman, 2012). While correct to point
to the contractionary effects of austerity, such advocates ignore Keynesianism’s
imperilled state in the 1970s, as well as capitalism’s chronic problems of profitability to which government spending can make little long-term difference
Capitalism’s immunity to attempts at smoothing its operation goes some way
towards explaining the lack of willingness on the part of social democratic leaders
to act against it. As Callaghan notes, many government leaders
successful alliances. PSOE was compromised by its support for austerity while in office and was neither able to establish effective opposition to austerity within Spain, nor marshal a common front of European social-democratic parties. Problems such as this reinforced trends towards unemployment and insecurity.
Labour movement and labour market in Spain: historical development and contemporary shape
Spanish trade unions are traditionally weak. This is partly the result of belated development; Spain industrialized later