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The role of news and online blogs in constructing political personas
Julia Gallagher and V. Y. Mudimbe

, while rumours and conspiracy theories flourished. Opposing political sides had merged into opposing accounts of reality. In the context of pro-Gbagbo websites, the narrative often boiled down to depicting Ouattara as a French neo-colonial puppet, and a Gbagbo as an anti-colonial hero. 3 Accordingly, the imagined relationship with the former colonial power France, and the international community at large, became a central idiom in the construction of the images of the opposing protagonists of the Ivoirian post-electoral crisis. The internet, as

in Images of Africa
Will Leggett

expansion. This colonises the language and politics of social democracy, which at least used to be about containing capitalism and ameliorating its worst effects. However, those who follow this line grant a vast amount of agency to the political elites who are held to have ushered in this new justification for capitalism, almost to the point of a conspiracy theory. They tend to

in The Third Way and beyond
Matthew Scribner

: first by nomad hordes who crossed the Bering Strait over 10,000 years ago; then by merchants from South-East Asia between AD 300 and 1200, thirdly by Vikings, starting out from Iceland and Greenland, who founded a colony in Vinland, and finally by Columbus. 29 Were it not for the growing audience of Honoré’s more recent successors in the area of pseudo-history, it would be tempting to dismiss claims like these and relegate them to the realm of conspiracy theories. One reason for the popularity of Honoré’s views may be that, by elevating the Norse as the real

in From Iceland to the Americas
Phil Powrie

questioning of the exercise of power in society. They revealed the possibility that power structures could change and that political activity could alter human relations’. 6 Mistrust of the state and a tendency to conspiracy theory was one of the main effects of May 1968 on film culture, leading to the relatively short-lived development of what was called the ‘fiction de gauche’ (left-wing fiction), often starring well-known left

in European film noir
S.J. Barnett

seems, amounted to very little. In the Dictionary of EighteenthCentury History, for instance, atheists are listed in fewer numbers than even deists. Faced with such little evidence, at least one or two historians have openly questioned the validity of atheistical conspiracy theories of the Enlightenment.63 As we shall see, a text’s notoriety for atheism or atheistic tendencies should not be understood as a necessary indicator of its potential or actual influence, but rather or equally as an indicator of its highly unusual and unrepresentative nature, and as a product

in The Enlightenment and religion
Open Access (free)
black magic and bogeymen in Northern Ireland, 1973–74
Richard Jenkins

curfew on the anti-imperialist population and make them live in fear. 37 Conspiracy theories were two a penny in the North, and at the time this story didn’t stand out as more plausible than the rest. However, in 1990 Paul Foot published Who Framed Colin Wallace ?, about a British Army intelligence officer – a local man – who claimed to have been persecuted following his

in Witchcraft Continued
Critical theory and the affective turn
Simon Mussell

applied independently to different topics so as to guarantee the critic’s rightness in each and every instance. Critics’ well-​worn ‘gestures’ and techniques are said to reveal secret forces and fetishes at work everywhere, apparently giving undue credence to even the most fantastical of conspiracy theories. But at the same time, Latour argues, critics hold their own fetishistic, discipline-​specific beliefs beyond reproach. As he puts it, with the flippancy that has become a hallmark of his recent writing: Antifetishists debunk objects they don’t believe in by showing

in Critical theory and feeling
Aminat Chokobaeva, Cloé Drieu and Alexander Morrison

, by Georgii Broido, Turar Rysqulov, S. Brainin and S. Shafiro, Petr Galuzo, Sanjar Asfendiyarov and others.14 While these could descend into conspiracy theory –​particularly in the case of Broido and Rysqulov’s suggestion that the revolt was deliberately provoked to justify the seizure of land from the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz, and to establish a greater military presence in the region in preparation for further conquest in Western China15 –​many of their judgements still resonate today. The archival documents which they published, notably the diary kept by General A

in The Central Asian Revolt of 1916
Abstract only
Islamism and liberalism in the Arab world: some theoretical remarks
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

Islamist movements to capture power in Arab lands. Islamists use the historical narrative of the ‘cultural attack’ (al-ghazw al-thaqafi) or the ‘ideological attack’ (al-ghazw al-fikri) to explain both these failures. It is a conspiracy theory that offers an alternative interpretation to conventional historiographies and portrays the West as a cohesive entity behind an ongoing assault against the Muslim world. According to this theory, adopted by Hasan al-Banna, accepted by his successors and rooted in modernist-apologetic writings, Europe realized, following the defeat

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Experiential challenges to the medium of theatrical representation
Liz Tomlin

ideological construction. What Baudrillard’s later work points to is the fact that, at a more advanced stage of global capitalism, when the simulacrum has successfully established itself as integral reality, the most pressing problem might not be that the public erroneously accepts given representations as reality, but rather that it is more likely to be convinced that all that is seemingly real is, in fact, mere ideological simulation. In The Spirit of Terrorism, Baudrillard draws attention to the prevalence of the conspiracy theory which proposes that it was the US

in Acts and apparitions