himself or his collaborators, using the periodical.3 This commitment in the 1930s to portraying the phenomenon of Communism resulted in an inversion of the Marxist vision, to put it very briefly. In this vision, theory was developed from the careful analysis of society and the relationships of production, and the approach to religion was determined by its nature as a ‘superstructure’. For the Catholics, the theoretical basis of Marxism was its atheistic materialism, applied to every aspect of social life. This position was the grounds for the Church’s almost

in Communism and anti-Communism in early Cold War Italy
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engaging with different oppressions and repressions at different times, Renoir’s cinéma is never able or never seeks to combine a broad critique of materialism and productivism with a critique of specific oppressions. The early 1930s focus largely on the bourgeoisie’s self-repression and hypocrisy but neglect that class’s exploitative relationship to other groups. The Frontist films focus on class oppression but move away from

in Jean Renoir
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acknowledged, for the first time since the Great Depression, the nation’s ongoing inability to realise the dreams of its anti-materialist, spiritually-driven early settlers. At the hands of the authoritarian militarism of successive governments and the rapacious self-seeking consumer fetishism of individuals, the nation for Romero had broken its foundational covenant with God; condemning itself to the crass materialism and paranoid jingoism so powerfully encapsulated in the zombie apocalypse. But as I will illustrate in Chapter 5, zombie horror was not the only subgenre

in The wounds of nations

England at cricket. We both survived the Cuban missile crisis (just), and were struck by how Oxford University pretended it wasn’t happening, along with the rest of life outside its complacent elitism and privileged rituals. Across potentially insurmountable sectarian and experiential divides, both wedded to historical materialism and realism, over the years we had many never-ending discussions and some fruitfully interminable disagreements. Yet, late in life we found how we surprisingly agreed on Marx, and how to move forward from Marx, and so decided to write a short

in Inequality and Democratic Egalitarianism
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sufficiently promote Ireland as an attractive place in which to do business. The State was concerned with self-sufficiency, was politically deferential to the agricultural sector, romanticised rural Ireland, and was influenced by an anti-business church which tied Catholicism to rural life and anti-materialism. The combination of these factors caused Ireland’s economic health to suffer, already high levels of emigration to rise, and low levels of corporate activity to persist. Consequently, the State was not concerned with issues of corporate and white-collar crime or

in Corporate and white-collar crime in Ireland
Contemporary environmental crisis fiction and the post-theory era

that must render them more and more at odds with one another’ (2015: 12). Yet ecocriticism is a developing field, the crisis and its literatures still unfolding. Much attention so far has been invested in reformulating thought in the (also) still unfolding aftermath of high theory, countering such difficulties as its foregrounding of culture over nature, or its viewing of ‘epistemological closure [as] […] necessarily a form of domination’ (Elliott and Attridge 2011: 2). The emergent conceptual frameworks to which Clark refers, such as new materialism in its various

in Extending ecocriticism

,’ as Engels puts it, ‘formed the camp of idealism. The others, who regarded nature as primary, belonged to the various schools of materialism.’13 Marx criticised Hegel from a materialist perspective. To comprehend Rethinking anti-racism 109 how Hegel could develop his understanding of the unity of objective and subjective, Marx argued, we need to locate the development of his philosophy in the material conditions of Europe at that time. A revolution in the real world, the French Revolution of 1789, provided the material conditions for Hegel’s revolution in thought

in Northern Ireland and the crisis of anti-racism
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, almost prehuman. For Lefebvre bodies orient themselves in space like spiders that produce space, that ‘secrete’ space, as they appropriate it. This zoomorphic imagining points in the direction of a base materialism that goes beyond the subject of discourse, knowledge, and representation. Rather than going back to originary or reflexive narratives and dialectics, beings, appearances, and representations, I would prefer to think of the border through what Bataille (1994) calls a ‘base materialism’, which necessarily violates any self-enclosed identity or objectivity. In

in The political materialities of borders
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Maps of the London Underground

’. Edward Soja’s work of the 1980s and particularly Postmodern Geographies (1989), part of the so-called ‘L.A. School’ of Marxist geography, was an important redefinition of the field of human geography and an attempt to recover spatial thinking in terms of a Marxist materialism. Mike Crang and Nigel Thrift, in their ‘Introduction’ to a work introducing the major theorists of the ‘spatial turn’, Thinking Space (2000), follow Soja in suggesting that ‘spatiality has been a repressed element of much social thought’. 39 The bringing forth of this repressed element

in Iain Sinclair

, deism, anticlericalism and irreligious forms of anti-materialism. We will now consider each of these trends in turn as we seek to explore the secularising mentalities which actively shaped a deeply secular republic. Positivism and scientism Secularisation can be understood not so much as the decline of religiosity as the transfer of authority over existential questions away from the Church and into other agents. No better example of this exists in nineteenth-century France than the widely influential philosophy of Auguste Comte, known as positivism. In his manual

in Catholic literature and secularisation in France and England, 1880–1914