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Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski and Svenja Mintert

99 and The Unity 01 at Borussia Dortmund, Commando Canstatt 1997 at VfB Stuttgart and Ultras Nürnberg 1994. Invented traditions need a formation date and these are memorialised on banners, flags and clothing. The spread across the Mediterranean The geographical location of Italy ensured that the ultras style of fandom was more readily accessible than the English style in Southern Europe. As the English style spread into Northern France, the Netherlands and Germany, and then into Central Europe and Poland, fans across Southern Europe began following the Italian

in Ultras
Rick Peterson

practices, particularly farming, sedentism and the use of pottery, can be seen to have spread into western Europe by two routes. These are associated with the Linear Pottery Culture (Linearbandkeramic [LBK]) identified in Central Europe (see e.g. the reviews by Gronenborn 2007; Gronenborn and Dolukhanov 2015; Hofmann 2015); and with the Cardial Impressed Ware complex present along the western Mediterranean region (Guilaine 2015; Guilaine and Manen 2007). The earliest cave burials in western Europe occurred around the Mediterranean. It was not until the fourth millennium

in Neolithic cave burials
Abstract only
Georgina Sinclair

. However, during the aftermath of the Suez crisis, it was also about keeping Britain’s options open regarding Cyprus’s future strategic role in the Mediterranean. The French transported their policing model lock, stock and barrel to their colonies. The British allegedly created a brand new model. 3 Yet, in both instances, policing relied more heavily on coercion than on

in At the end of the line
Abstract only
Anne Ring Petersen

that address the problematics of clandestine migration from Africa across the Mediterranean Sea to Europe. The chapter also extended the discussion of the  invariably politicised, artistic representation of unwanted immigrants to the overall issue of the relations between aesthetics and politics. It addressed the  question of how the aesthetic and affective qualities and the visual ‘organisational power’ (Demos) of artworks can encourage, in responsive viewers, the kind of empathic perception that can trigger the ‘empathic unsettlement’ (Bennett) needed to stimulate

in Migration into art
Abstract only
Georgina Sinclair

colonial police forces when the size of its regular army and the scale of its imperial activities are considered. In 1715, having colonised over 500,000 people in North America, a large part of the West Indies, coastal settlements in India and outposts in the Mediterranean, Britain’s army was no bigger than the King of Sardinia’s. By 1850, the home-produced army was still conspicuously modest by comparison

in At the end of the line
The Mediterranean movida and the passing away of Francoist Barcelona
Alberto Mira

in the early Transition years. At the time, certain nineteenth-century mythologies of the Mediterranean as the locus of sensuality were still very much in place and very prominent in Catalan cultures, and they are taken up by Pons and Mira in their filmic works. Such mythologies also, I would argue, made the Catalan perspective distinct from the Madrid-centred version of political change. These films of the 1978–82 period

in Spanish cinema 1973–2010
Abstract only
Steven Hutchinson

Protestantism and claimed victims in the Nordic countries, in the Mediterranean and even in Japan. A geo-religious map would indicate the distribution of martyrs in certain areas, but wouldn’t show a ducal pleasure mansion in the interior of Aragon: martyrdom had its own geography. Our martyr Sancho doesn’t die, he defends no religious dogma, he won’t be taken directly to heaven for his martyrdom, he provides no edifying model for others. But his martyrdom – expressed in singular and plural, as martirio and martirios – is not merely understood as ‘pain or suffering

in Frontier narratives
Helen M. Davies

radical Ledru-Rollin seemed to have accepted … its legitimacy’.33 He had cause also to remind his readers how, in his writings and in his actions, his goal was to improve the lot of the ‘working classes’. But this attempt to join the Chambre des Députés fared no better than the first and Emile Pereire lost narrowly to the 70-year-old incumbent Subervie by 151 votes to 163.34 Saint-Simonian Paulin Talabot had been pursuing Chevalier’s ‘Mediterranean system’ as actively as the Pereires, though from a different direction. The Paris–Lyon rail line was bound to be central to

in Emile and Isaac Pereire
Protestant and Catholic bodies
Tessa Storey

identity, or an English, as opposed to a Catholic, Mediterranean body. The chapter will consider the ‘ideological’ framework of the regimen in the two countries; perceptions about the impact of climate and air on the body and of the role played by the pores in maintaining health; advice on eating; and discussions of coitus. Appealing to the common English reader As noted in Chapter 1, recently scholars have engaged in lively debate on the likely readership of such vernacular medical texts. Murray Jones for example has suggested that the success of Elyot’s Castel was

in Conserving health in early modern culture
The international connection
Francesco Cavatorta

the external context forces choices onto domestic ­ actors. While the latter remain formally in charge, the conditions under which they operate are not entirely of their own making. For the analysis of Algeria, it is useful to look at rentierism and the geopolitics of the Mediterranean to further specify how the two dimensions work. Rentierism ‘A rentier state is defined as any state that receives a substantial portion of its income in the form of external rents’ (Shambayati, 1994: 308). According to Brynen (1992), rentier states have very specific characteristics

in The international dimension of the failed Algerian transition