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Palm Sunday processions
Eyal Poleg

-creating the Gospel narrative. Palm Sunday was widely depicted on church walls and lavish manuscripts; its texts reverberated in Middle English literature; and its performance was re-created in civic processions. What makes the day even more significant for the study of biblical mediation is the fact that this memorable biblical story does not lend itself easily to liturgical re-enactment. Liturgical processions were made to emulate Christ’s reception at the outskirts of Second-Temple Jerusalem in the towns and villages of medieval Europe. Transforming the biblical event

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England
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Chaucer and romance in the manuscript tradition
Gareth Griffith

violence, anti-clericalism, games of incompleteness and imitation, and women suffering from male desire. In short, in significant respects, he became more Spenserian. Defining romance In recent decades, scholarly work on the popular romance in Middle English has been plentiful and rich, alongside continued interest in the more ‘courtly’ works associated with major canonical authors. 6 This scholarship has frequently found it necessary to establish a way or ways by which the category of romance could be

in Rereading Chaucer and Spenser
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Reading, space and intimacy in Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde
Andrew James Johnston

meant to be the Roman de Thèbes – in fact, there is not a single piece of textual evidence to support this claim. One of the most important arguments in favour of the traditional reading is based on the semantics of the Middle English romaunce , usually interpreted as ‘courtly romance’ in the context of Troilus and Criseyde. 8 This, however, is a term with an

in Love, history and emotion in Chaucer and Shakespeare
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Three Advent Sunday sermons
Eyal Poleg

journey of the faithful serves as a coda to the sermon. Copies of this sermon were extant in libraries both in England and the Continent; its dissemination and popularity are attested by a late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century rendering. Written in Middle English, possibly by an adherent of Wyclif, this version engages in dialogue with Odo’s sermon through its choice of themes and words while serving as a rare witness to the afterlife of the Latin sermon. The second sermon dates to the late thirteenth century, and its sole copy exists in an early fourteenth

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England
Stephanie Downes

pallor is almost always a marker of some essential absence or lack, whether of colour, feeling, reason, health, vitality or any combination of these; its exceptionality is further compounded by this sense of deviation from a facial ‘norm’. Rarely, if ever, do we encounter a crowd of pale faces in Middle English literature. It is perhaps precisely because of the atypicality of the pale face that it insists on being interpreted and understood. Such faces come to represent and to induce a variety of affects and emotions in (and around) the texts in which they appear. In

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries
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E.A. Jones

witness. The first of the ‘Middle English Mystics’, Richard Rolle, was likewise sought out as a spiritual director, and after his death was revered as a saint. Much of his writing touches (sometimes quite defensively) on his life as a hermit: his improvised entry into the vocation is [ 47 ] (and see [ 21 ] for an excerpt from his writings). And Walter Hilton (whose advice to recluses lies behind [ 25 ]) spent time as a solitary himself

in Hermits and anchorites in England, 1200–1550
Francisco Alonso-Almeida

confidence in the validity of the recipe. Probatum est was widely used in the Middle English period (1100–1500) and in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Its use in this later period is, however, much less frequent, likely a symptom of increased literacy and a decline in folklore knowledge, as can be deduced from Henry Bracken’s words, in an eighteenth-century text on

in Reading and writing recipe books, 1550–1800
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In search of pre-Reformation English spirituality
R. N. Swanson

Dying . Each offers a different approach to the lay experience, seeking to provide a means whereby spirituality could be encouraged and hope confirmed, without going to extremes. The lack of extremism is important: it is too easy to place too much emphasis on the ‘Middle English mystics’, and judge others by their yardstick. 58 Yet mysticism almost by definition is a rarity: the majority had to live

in Catholic England
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Chanita Goodblatt and Eva von Contzen

-dominated Church hierarchy. For his part, Jonathan Stavsky analyses the representation of Jewish–Christian relations in the N-Town ‘Trial of Mary and Joseph’. He situates this play within a wide intertextual context, including the Apocryphal source and its Middle English retellings. Considered in this way, Stavsky proposes that the play offers a nuanced vision of Christianity's roots, as it translates salvation history to fifteenth-century East Anglia in order to forge a just community capable of resisting scandalmongers. In the final chapter of this part, Eva von Contzen

in Enacting the Bible in medieval and early modern drama
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Jeffrey Jerome Cohen

water and the lond also’ (7.369–74).1 As its French and Latin etymology suggests, envirounen means surround, encircle, fill, attend, enclose, beset. Air is matter, action, place and mood. It is turbulent, mixing land and sea and human emotion into storm and tempest. Thunder, lightning and gale find their forceful habitat in the air. So do birds, insects and angels, filling the element with song. That cheerfulness can infect life, so that air raises emotive states and refreshes. The Middle English phrase ‘to take the eire’ means to stroll outdoors and allow the element

in Contemporary Chaucer across the centuries